Association between cognition and color discrimination among Lebanese patients with schizophrenia
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AbstractBackground: Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) exhibit poorer color discrimination than normal individuals. Although retinal abnormalities, as well as cortical and subcortical alterations, found in patients with SCZ have been suggested to cause this poor color discrimination, the impact of cognitive impairment remains to be determined. Dopamine (DA) and glutamate (Glu), known to be disrupted in SCZ, are also suggested to play a role in color discrimination. Our objective was to investigate the contribution of cognitive impairment to color discrimination deficits in SCZ and to examine if these deficits are correlated to SCZ symptoms. Methods: This study includes 127 patients with SCZ between July and September 2021. The participants completed several questionnaires, specifically the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test, and the Farnsworth D-15 test, to assess the extent of SCZ symptoms, cognition, and color discrimination respectively. Results: Higher cognition (Beta = - 0.279) was significantly associated with a lower total error score (TES). Moreover, a higher positive PANSS score (Beta = 0.217) was significantly associated with a higher TES. A multinomial regression analysis taking the type of color blindness as the dependent variable showed that female sex (ORa = 5.46) was significantly associated with a certain type of color blindness. Conclusion: Color discrimination deficits in patients with SCZ may be due to the effect of cognitive impairment and/or SCZ itself.