Recent Submissions

  • The Relationship between Family Problems and their Impact on the Academic Performance of University Students in Saudi Arabia

    Nisma, Merdad; Alanezi, Manar; Psychology
    Family problems is a rising issue in Saudi Arabia. It often leads to a negative impact on the family members who directly or indirectly live through it. Family problems can be defined as any verbal or non-verbal conflict arising in the family due to misunderstandings and problems that often results in physical or mental harassments. Year after year, many cases of domestic violence have been reported in news and the numbers keep increasing from time to time and experiencing this problem is leaving negative impact on the victim. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the rise in family problems and to discover their result on the academic acheivements of university students in Saudi Arabia A cross sectional study was carried out in form of questionnaires that was distributed to the students in university based in Jeddah. The questionnaires were designed in such a way to explore and exclude that the academic stress was not included. There were total of 30 responses from students across various departments. This will aim to establish whether there is a connection between family problems and academic performance.
  • The impact Of Marketing Expenditure On Finance Profit and Loss Account

    tayachi, taher; Masoudi, Fatma; Finance
    Abstract: Marketing is often a misunderstood term; for example, some people confuse marketing with advertising. Marketing could be defined as an overall process in which customers get the goods and services they want and the sellers get paid for what they sell so that a profit can be made. This rather simplistic definition, however, does not give any indication to people all of the things involved in the process of marketing that can involve many costs like advertising and market research as well as production of merchandise. The thesis by the researcher aims to shine a light on how the many costs of marketing such as advertising and marketing research can have an impact on the Profit & loss account of a company
  • Impact of the Tourism Industry on Economic Growth in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Countries.

    Shaheen, Rozina; Alsayed, Wasan; Finance
    Tourism forms part of economic, cultural, and social occurrence that comprises the movement of people from one region or country to another. The essence of tourism is to explore different environments either professionally, for business, or personal reasons. This study discusses the relationship between tourism and economic growth in the GCC, exploring the impact of Inbound Tourist Arrivals (ITAs) and Inbound Tourist Receipts (ITRs) alongside key economic indicators. The literature review illustrates the role of foreign investments, political alliances, and challenges faced by GCC nations in fostering tourism. Methodologically, a quantitative approach is employed, utilizing economic indicators like ITAs, ITRs, unemployment rates, labor productivity, and gross capital formation. Surprisingly, the findings reveal nuanced dynamics, with ITRs exhibiting a complex influence on economic growth. Moreover, each GCC nation demonstrates distinct patterns in tourism indicators. The discussion interprets these findings, urging policymakers to consider diversified tourism strategies, strengthen economic fundamentals, and reevaluate metrics for tourism contributions. Collaboration among GCC countries is emphasized, with an eye on continuous monitoring and adaptation to dynamic global trends. The study significantly contributes to understanding the intricate interplay between tourism and economic growth in the GCC, challenging conventional wisdom and offering pragmatic recommendations for policymakers. Future research should build upon these insights, fostering a comprehensive understanding of this symbiotic relationship.
  • Impact of 5S method On the Organization Performance: A Case Study the Apparel Industry, KSA

    Tayachi, Tahar; Muzoon, Alasbali; Finance
    The 5S method is a Japanese system that involves workplace management improvements. It further analyses the effect of the 5s method in the apparel & textile industry as a case study and how its implementation directly impacts saving time and costs. 5s process helps to eliminate waste, reduce defects, and help in improving the productivity of the business. Further, reducing clutter and junk at the workplace is hygienic and ergonomic. This research aims to identify and present key concepts of 5S perspective. These findings link 5S to productivity improvement, which are aligned to an integrated maintenance system rather than maintenance system before. This paper explores the 5S management concept, its advantages and the framework required to implement the system in the Apparel Industry. This research paper tries to identify how the 5s method is implemented in the Apparel industry and how it has helped the industry improve its waste reduction targets, profitability, and productivity. The apparel industry uses the 5S to dispose of the wastage and use the factory production layout to smooth working, wastages are cleared, and regularly maintained space. This would help minimize managing time, moving part finished apparel from one process to another quickly, and final apparel can be stitched and packed in a faster time process. This will improve the business's profitability and enhance its competitiveness in the local and international market sectors.
  • Translation Techniques and Problems: With the Translation and Analysis of a Short Story:"Frozen, the Junior Novelization" by Nathan and Roman

    Jday, Wassim; wassim; Algamdi, Fatemah; English & Translation
    The aim of this research paper is to translate some chapters of a short English novel "Frozen, the junior novelization" (Nathan and Roman, 2013), to Arabic language. This story is one of the most famous stories from Disney and had been made into a popular movie. The Translation technique or strategies, and the problems that faced for the translator, the obstacle and techniques used while translating the story will be illustrated, to help translators overcome the obstacle and use the proper strategies while translating
  • KNOWLEDGE-BASED VIBRANT SOCIETY: Woman’s Design Center.

    Refaat, Ahmed Mohamed; Alrashed, Nouf; Architecture
  • Strategies for Urban Regeneration of The Deteriorated Areas

    Prof. Dr. Mohammed Fekry, Prof. Dr. Ahmed Refaat, Associate; Fekry; A.Alobeid, Nawar; Architecture
    As a result of urban sprawl in Jeddah that led to losing control over the old neighborhoods and focusing more on developing new neighborhoods that attract residents through internal migration. Therefore, many deteriorated areas and slums started to appear in the urban fabric of Jeddah. However, not all these deteriorated areas need the same level of urban regeneration. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to provide a classification tool for these deteriorated areas that will contribute in helping the developers and decision-makers in the regeneration process. So, the research will address how the deteriorated areas could be classified according to specific characteristics and criteria, and what are the appropriate strategies for upgrading or regenerating each case. The data collection is derived from previous literature reviews, research studies, and different case studies of existing projects as well. The survey study will be directed to experts in the field, in order to verify the importance of the proposed characteristics that contribute to build the desired framework model. The results of the survey will examine the validation and effectiveness of the developed framework at the local scale. As it will be applied in one of the deteriorated neighborhoods of Jeddah. Finally, conclusion and recommendations will be provided at the end of the research. As it will measures the accuracy of the developed framework, and shows the extent to which developers and decision makers will rely on this framework as a classification tool measurement, for generating all the deteriorated areas whether in local or international contexts.
  • The Impact of Working Capital Management on the Financial Performance of the Energy Sector of Saudi Arabia

    BenSaïda, Ahmed; Saleh, Alaa; Finance
    This study aims to investigate the relationship between working capital management (WCM) and the financial performance of the Saudi energy sector. Previous research indicated that working capital management consists of managing five core components: Cash, Accounts receivable, Accounts payable, Inventory and Short-term debt. However, the impact of only three of them on the financial performance will be examined. These three are: Accounts receivable, Accounts payable, and Short-term debt. Furthermore, the data were collected from the financial statements of all the six energy companies listed in Tadawul during the period of 2019-2022. In this study, Current ratio is used as a proxy for WCM while Return on Assets is used to assess the financial performance. In addition, Debt to Equity ratio is used as a moderate variable to examine the leverage impact on the financial performance. To analyse these variables, a linear regression model is used. Results show that there is not enough evidence to say that working capital management affect the financial performance of the Saudi energy sector, which is not the case for leverage as it does impact the sector. In addition, possible justifications for these findings are provided. Finally, this study recommends other research to investigate why working capital management may not impact the financial performance of the Saudi energy sector.
  • The Effect of Social Media Advertising on the Restaurant Industry of Saudi Arabia

    Ahmed, Manzar; Almoalad, Hammdah; Marketing
    The rapid growth and widespread adoption of social media platforms has revolutionized the way businesses promote their products and services. The restaurant industry, in particular, has realized the huge potential of social media advertising as a powerful tool to reach and engage with a large customer base. This research aims to clarify the impact of social media on the restaurant industry in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to help us formulate the study question. The research question in this study is: “How does social media advertising affect the restaurant industry in Saudi Arabia?” The literature review is done by different researchers, academics and scholars who have previously researched similar topics. A sample of 100 participants was selected for the research. Including students and employees aged 18 to 48 years. A research survey was developed and FourEye survey and graphical analysis were used to determine the results. The results of this study showed that social media advertising can positively impact the restaurant industry in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by significantly increasing brand awareness of restaurants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. By leveraging different social media platforms such as Instagram, Twitter, and Snapchat, restaurants can also reach a wide audience. It has also been shown that social media advertising can have a negative impact on the restaurant industry through which negative reviews or customer complaints can spread quickly. It harms the reputation of the restaurant. One negative experience shared on social media can have a significant impact on a restaurant's image and discourage potential customers from visiting. Social media advertising can also influence consumer behavior switching intention, purchase intention and attitudes
  • The Effect of Diversification On Firms Performance Case Of Saudi Arabia

    Raheem, Mohamed Mahees; Badrah, Reem; Finance
    The study examines The Effect of Diversification on Firm Performance Case of Saudi Arabia. The aim of the study investigate how diversification impacts the financial performance of Saudi Arabia Firms Explore the dependent and independent variables that has direct or indirect relationship with performance and diversification. Moreover, the data will be imported from TASI & Bloomberg for five industry Listed in Tadawul which are Food and beverage, Diversified Financials, Food & Staples, Retailing, Energy, Capital Goods, Consumer Durables & Apparel, Materials, Bank in each industry we select five companies total firms forty. During period of time 2012 -2022. The model that will be used Regression model, to minimize the variance between the observed responses and the predicted one. This paper found diversification has a insignificant relationship on firm performance, the diversified firms have lower performance than non-diversified firms, lastly Diversified firms profitable more than undiversified firms.
  • The Effect of Social Media Advertising on the Restaurant Industry of Saudi Arabia

    Manzarahmed, Anwarahmed; Almoalad, Hammdah; Marketing
    The rapid growth and widespread adoption of social media platforms has revolutionized the way businesses promote their products and services. The restaurant industry, in particular, has realized the huge potential of social media advertising as a powerful tool to reach and engage with a large customer base. This research aims to clarify the impact of social media on the restaurant industry in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to help us formulate the study question. The research question in this study is: “How does social media advertising affect the restaurant industry in Saudi Arabia?” The literature review is done by different researchers, academics and scholars who have previously researched similar topics. A sample of 100 participants was selected for the research. Including students and employees aged 18 to 48 years. A research survey was developed and FourEye survey and graphical analysis were used to determine the results. The results of this study showed that social media advertising can positively impact the restaurant industry in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by significantly increasing brand awareness of restaurants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. By leveraging different social media platforms such as Instagram, Twitter, and Snapchat, restaurants can also reach a wide audience. It has also been shown that social media advertising can have a negative impact on the restaurant industry through which negative reviews or customer complaints can spread quickly. It harms the reputation of the restaurant. One negative experience shared on social media can have a significant impact on a restaurant's image and discourage potential customers from visiting. Social media advertising can also influence consumer behavior switching intention, purchase intention and attitudes.
  • Speech emotion recognition

    balfagih, zain; Ahmed, Fatima; Computer Science
    In this study, a deep learning model was developed to recognize emotions in speech. The model used a combination of Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) for feature extraction and a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) layer to capture contextual information. The model was trained and tested on a speech database called the Toronto Emotional Speech Set. The results showed that the model was able to achieve high accuracy in emotion recognition, exceeding 95% for model accuracy and 97% for validation accuracy. The authors suggest that this type of model could be used to improve the ability of AI systems to understand and respond to human emotions, potentially enhancing the user experience in tasks such as voice commands, messaging, and recommendation systems.
  • Impact of Capital Structure on Profitability in Saudi Arabia Sectors

    Shaheen, Rozina; Alahmadi, Manar; Master of Science in Finance
    This study attempts to find out the compositions of capital structure and their relationship with the profitability of companies in Saudi Arabia. The study used a 10 years (2012-2022) panel data of a sample of 50 companies as a major data input. By employing an explanatory research design, the study mainly tried to investigate the relationship between capital structure and profitability using a dependent variable (ROE ) and (ROA), independent variables that represented the capital structure: leverage , Long-Term Debt to Total Assets (LDA), Debt to Asset Ratio (DA), Debt to equity (DER), Short-term debt to total assets (SDA), total equity to total assets (TETA) and control variables: firm size, firm liquidity, and company growth and economic variables such as Gross Domestic Product growth rate, inflation rate , and SAIBOR rate .After the raw data had been collected and analyzed, results were computed, analyzed and presented using panel data analysis., descriptive statistics and correlation analysis methods fixed effect for ROA and random for ROE regression output model. The findings have shown that the capital structure of the sampled Saudi Arabia company was composed of more debt than equity. The regression analysis results the LDA, TETA, leverage, liquidity, growth, GDP, and inflation had positive and statistically significant effects on ROA, and SDA, DA, DER, size, and SAIBOR had negative and statistically significant effects on ROA. Where, LDA, TETA, leverage, liquidity, growth, size, and GDP had positive and statistically significant effects on ROA, and SDA, DER, inflation, and SAIBOR had positive and statistically significant effects on ROA at 1%, 5%, and 10% significant levels respectively . The study concludes that capital structure had a significant impact on the profitability of companies in Saudi Arabia and recommends that it become more profitable and attain optimal capital structure and company value. The Saudi company should give greater attention to the variables: DER, leverage, size, GDP, and SAIBOR which were found to be strongly related to their company performance.
  • The Impact of Financial Development on Environment, Social, and Governance (ESG) Performance: The Case of MENA Countries

    Smolo, Edib; Alsuhaibani, Alhanouf; Master of Science in Finance
    In recent times, the world has witnessed rapid development that has generated a substantial loss of habitat and degradation of the environment. This situation poses significant risks of natural disasters for many nations. The development of green technology has been identified as pivotal in curtailing environmental hazards, and financial development has been lauded for its role in funding this endeavor. However, there needs to be more research concerning the impact of financial development on environmental, social, and governance (ESG) performance, which is a crucial element of sustainable management. The present study aims to address this gap in knowledge by investigating the association between financial development and ESG performance in 17 MENA countries from 2012 to 2020. Various financial development indicators, such as global financial development, financial institutions, and financial markets, are analyzed to gauge their impact on ESG behavior. Factors such as trade openness (TO), economic growth (GDP), and foreign direct investment (FDI) flows critical features that are examined, with a specific focus on the relationship between economic growth and environmental, social, and governance (ESG) performance in the MENA region. These findings offer important insights that could inform policy-making promoting sustainable economic development while considering the environmental and social implications.
  • The Effect of Diversification On Firms Performance Case Of Saudi Arabia

    Raheem, Mohamed Mahees; Badrah, Reem; Finance
    The study examines The Effect of Diversification on Firm Performance Case of Saudi Arabia. The aim of the study investigate how diversification impacts the financial performance of Saudi Arabia Firms Explore the dependent and independent variables that has direct or indirect relationship with performance and diversification. Moreover, the data will be imported from TASI & Bloomberg for five industry Listed in Tadawul which are Food and beverage, Diversified Financials, Food & Staples, Retailing, Energy, Capital Goods, Consumer Durables & Apparel, Materials, Bank in each industry we select five companies total firms forty. During period of time 2012 -2022. The model that will be used Regression model, to minimize the variance between the observed responses and the predicted one. This paper found diversification has a insignificant relationship on firm performance, the diversified firms have lower performance than non-diversified firms, lastly Diversified firms profitable more than undiversified firms.
  • Financial Performance Analysis of the Hospitality Industry in Saudi Arabia

    Smolo, Edib; Almotairi, Waad; Finance
    This study examines the performance of the hospitality industry in Saudi Arabia by traditional financial ratios over the past five years by using the financial statements from the Saudi Exchange Tadawul website. The study aims to analyze the financial performance of hospitality companies to explore the development ratio of the hospitality field in Saudi Arabia, included in the Tadawul during the 2018-2022 period. It will examine the financial performance of the hospitality industry by using ROE and ROA affected by the leverage, Liquidity, Size, and GROW. From the results, it was seen that Hospitality companies in Saudi Arabia should focus on improving their net margin and asset turnover to improve their financial performance. Consequently, the hospitality industry's financial performance has been adversely affected by COVID-19.
  • THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIAL, AND GOVERNANCE (ESG) IN PREDICTING FINANCIAL DISTRESS CASE OF KSA

    Mahees, Mohamed; Alqashqari, Marwah; Finance
    This study explores the potential of environmental, social, and governance (ESG) metrics in predicting financial distress in Saudi Arabian industries over an eleven-year period from 2012 to 2022. We start by defining what financial distress is. Financial distress occurs when a company is unable to meet its financial obligations due to insufficient earnings or income. Our research shows that incorporating ESG metrics enhances the capability to identify financial distress. Using ESG data reduces the likelihood of misclassifying struggling or delinquent industries as financially stable. We employ the Z score model to identify industries with a high risk of failure and examine how ESG factors influence a company's performance and impact the investors' decision-making. Our results demonstrate that industries with lower ESG scores are more likely to experience financial distress, while industries with higher ESG scores are more likely to remain financially stable over time. Moreover, we found that ESG metrics can provide valuable insights into a company's risk exposure and potential for long-term financial sustainability. The implications of our study extend beyond the Saudi Arabian context and have broader relevance for investors and policymakers seeking to assess the financial health and sustainability of companies across different industries. Our findings highlight the importance of incorporating ESG metrics into financial analysis and decision-making processes, particularly in the context of emerging markets where companies may face higher levels of environmental and social risks.
  • Causes Of Financial Distress In Saudi Insurance Industry

    Shaheen, Rozina; AlQathmi, Joud; Finance
    The insurance industry in Saudi Arabia has grown significantly in recent years, but this expansion has also introduced additional challenges. Financial distress, which may be brought on by a number of circumstances, is one of the biggest problems insurance businesses encounter. In the following paper, we examine the factors that contribute to and determine financial difficulties in the Saudi Arabian insurance sector. Our investigation is limited to a sample of 20 Saudi Arabian insurance firms. To investigate the elements that lead to financial hardship in this sector, we utilize a panel data set spanning the years 2015 to 2020. Our findings suggest that important predictors of financial distress in the Saudi Arabia insurance industry include variables including capital adequacy, liquidity, and profitability. Additionally, we discover that macroeconomic factors like inflation and GDP growth significantly affect financial distress. Our findings specifically imply that lower levels of financial distress in the insurance sector are related with better GDP growth rates and lower inflation rates. Also, we look into how regulatory issues affect financial hardship in the Saudi insurance sector. Our findings imply that regulatory elements like market structure and solvency standards have a major effect on financial distress. Particularly, we show that insurance businesses are less likely to encounter financial trouble if they operate in a more competitive market and if they are subject to tougher solvency rules. Overall, our findings offer understanding into the elements that fuel the financial crisis in the Saudi insurance sector. Our study's findings indicate that in order to lower their risk of financial difficulty, insurance businesses should concentrate on maintaining appropriate capital and liquidity levels as well as increasing profitability. To lessen the probability of financial difficulty in the business, regulators may also take into account enacting stronger solvency criteria and encouraging competition in the insurance market.
  • Investigate comprehensive consideration for a time-based walkability approach in Jeddah - The 15-minutes approach as a case study

    Mohamed, Mady; Khalil, Ahad; Master of Science in Urban Design
    In a globally connected world, the concept of intelligent cities is booming daily. The demand for active and livable neighborhoods has increased. After the pandemic, the decision makers/urban planners started promoting new urban models such as the 15-minute city. This approach focused on the pedestrian walkable distance within 15 minutes of their daily needs and urban services. Jeddah city has challenged rapid urban growth, which caused neglected walking and cycling transit mode and reliance on private cars resulting from the city's land use distribution. From this perspective, the current thesis will explore the relationship between walkability, distance, and time to test the appropriateness of the 15-minute city to Investigate the ability to improve walking transportation within the neighborhoods in Jeddah. The main aim is to design a guideline model for enhancing the time-based walkability Jeddah approach by taking the 15-minute neighborhoods as a case study by improving walking transport within the neighborhood. The research utilizes a combined methodological approach: an analytical literature review, field study, and case study analysis. The literature review will help understand the walkability and pedestrian requirements and their relationship to each other. Later the questionnaire with users', the observations, and the interviews with experts were used to conduct the field study. The author selected two districts in Jeddah to examine achieving the principles of the time-based walkability approach in Jeddah in a selected neighborhood. Also, to explore the proposed time/distance to be used for walkability in Jeddah. Later, the proposed principles of the time-based walkability approach are derived using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to categorize the essential criteria or variables into a hierarchy system. The expected result of this study is to formulate a model for enhancing time-based walkability in Jeddah that helps to enhance walkability—aiming to enhance walkability in terms of sustainable, affordable, and practical solutions for a hot arid zone to be aligned with the Saudi 2030 vision.
  • An Examination of Herd Behavior: Evidence from Saudi Arabia Stock Exchange

    BenSaïda, Ahmed; Nour, Layali; Master of Science in Finance
    Abstract This research study seeks to determine if herding behavior exists among publicly listed companies in the Saudi Arabia stock exchange market at a sectoral level. To measure herding behavior, the study employs the Cross-Sectional Absolute Deviation (CSAD) of returns and Modified Cross-Sectional Absolute Deviation (MCSAD) models which include trading volume. The analysis utilizes daily data for 215 companies across 20 sectors from January 1, 2018, through December 31, 2022. Two Hypotheses are examined and empirically confirmed. The first hypothesis is that herding behavior exists in the Tadawul. The second hypothesis is that the incorporation of volume data in the analysis enhances the accuracy in identifying herding behavior in the Saudi Arabia stock market, as trading volume is a crucial factor that influences herding behavior in the financial market. The results reveal that almost half of the market sectors exhibit signs of herding behavior, with some sectors being more susceptible to this behavior than others. Additionally, the study also demonstrates that trading volume has a key role in foretelling herding behavior in the Saudi Arabia stock market. This research adds a lot to our understanding of herding behavior in the Saudi Arabia stock market by highlighting the importance of trading volume as a key factor in predicting the occurrence of this phenomenon. The study’s conclusions may have a big impact on investors and regulators, giving them important knowledge about market behavior and assisting them in making better investment choices.

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