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  • The Effect of Shelf-Based Scarcity on Consumer’ Choices

    Qasem, Zainah; Iraqi, Tala; Marketing
    Today, Saudi Arabia has a very competitive market: therefore, understanding the effect of different marketing tactics is essential. Saudi Arabia's startup funding has drastically increased in 2022 and is continuing to grow more than 20 times in five years to reach $1.2 billion (Saudi Arabia to Grow at Fastest Pace in a Decade, 2022). Shelf-based scarcity in the form of relative stocking level depletion significantly affects consumer preferences (van Herpen et al. 2009). Previous studies found that shelf-based scarcity drives consumers to draw inferences that the scarcer alternative is both more popular and of higher quality. This article tests this theory out in the scope of Saudi Arabia. In addition, a long stream of previous studies found that Scarcity tends to impact preferences only for desirable goods and when consumers believe that scarcity was caused by market forces and not accidental or non-market such as a missed delivery (see, e.g., Verhallen 1982). Demand-driven scarcity is implied by product popularity increasing the product's value and preference. Product exclusivity and uniqueness are attributed to supply-driven scarcity, satisfying consumers' need for uniqueness and desire to display social status . Many retailers and merchandisers don’t understand the importance of the shelves in their markets how to leverage them and their effects on consumers’ behavior. In addition, not enough research is done on shelf-based scarcity in Saudi Arabia. This article addresses these problems to successfully guide retailers and merchandisers to arrange their shelves in a way that will affect their in-store customers in positively. This research used a quantitative approach because it’s more efficient. The target population were people living in Saudi Arabia. Data was collected through an online survey method since its convenient and easy. The survey was used to test out the effect of shelf-based scarcity alone excluding any other factors that may affect consumers choice such as price and brand name. The survey link was randomly sent to residents in Saudi Arabia. SPSS software and the one-way ANOVA test was used for analyzing the collected data. This paper suggests that shelf-based scarcity shouldn’t be used as a marketing tactic in Saudi as consumers believe it’s a non-market force and won’t affect their perception of quality nor popularity. The study’s result suggest that Saudi consumers believe that scarcity is caused by non-market; Therefore, shelf-based scarcity negatively affects Saudi consumers.
  • Influence of social factors on green purchasing intentions

    Ahmed, Manzar; Alghamdi, Arwa; Marketing
    In the recent years, the need for production, distribution, consumption and disposal of green consumer products has increasingly attracted anthropological studies. With the ever increasing global population, the market for consumer products has increased which has in turn forced overexploitation of the natural resources, leading to depletion of natural resources. In line with this, this study sort to establish the influence of consumer traits which included external factors (collectivism) and social factors (environmental visibility and subjective norms) on the intention to purchase green consumer products. The study employed qualitative study approach to collect data from 300 participants, found shopping for green products within three shopping malls in Jeddah, KSA. Data was analyzed using SPSS Version 22 with ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation analysis. The findings established that all the three confounding factors; collectivism, environmental visibility and subjective norms showed significant subjective correlation to the consumer intention to purchase green products. However, the findings indicated that environmental visibility had the strongest impact on the green purchase intention as compared to collectivism and subjective norms since it had the highest F value. The study integrated consumer traits into green consumer awareness to establish the impact of social factors on the green products purchasing intentions. The study also outlined the need managers to devise integrate consumer characteristics in strategies for marketing green products. More so, the study expressed the need for future studies to capture the consumer characteristics from a larger geographical perspective.
  • The effect of advertising on the Saudi tourism industry

    Daou, Lindos; Bahamdain, Revin; Marketing
    Tourism is one of the most prominent and constantly expanding industries in Saudi Arabia, with a boost in the entertainment and cultural heritage fields. While religious pilgrimages still comprise most of Saudi Arabia's tourism, the recreational tourism industry is expanding. Saudi Arabia has grown as a unique tourist destination in recent years, yet its maximum potential remains untapped. Therefore, this study plays a significant role in gaining the audience's attention towards the tourism industry. The Saudi government has stepped up its efforts to promote Saudi Arabia to international tourists as the Kingdom grows in popularity as a travel destination. This study intends to investigate the impact of advertising methods using different media on the Saudi tourism industry and help us formulate the study's research question. The research question in this study is: "How effective are Saudi Arabia's Giga projects, and how successful are they in influencing the rapid growth and development of the tourism industry? The literature is reviewed by different researchers, academics, and scholars who have previously conducted research on similar subjects. The research is quantitative in nature and employs a cross-sectional study design. In terms of data collection, a survey questionnaire is used with closed-ended research questions. The target sample belongs to international audience, and it is selected by the methods of convenience sampling. A sample of 100 research participants belonging to different nationalities is selected. During the year 2020, the global economy was expected to decrease by 4.4 percent, according to the October World Economic Outlook. Tourism-dependent economies experienced a far greater decline. The findings of this research will display the growth of Saudi tourism services using tourism marketing, Saudi Arabia's challenges to media advertisements and campaigns, the effect of local advertising on tourists, and tourist responses.
  • Green Marketing: A Study of Consumers' Purchase Intention Towards Organic Foods

    Qasem, Zainah; Matute Otavenga, Ana-Isabel; Marketing
    Organic food consumption is on the rise yet, it is not being studied deeply. Green marketing, in general, refers to marketing activities that attempt to reduce the negative social and environmental impacts of existing products and production systems, while also promoting less harmful products and services. Food consumption has a large influence on the environment, individuals, and public health. As a result, people tend to divert towards organic foods which may be least harmful to the environment. This paper aims to determine consumers’ purchase intention toward organic foods. A questionnaire was utilized to gather the data for this study. An online survey method was applied, which lasted for two weeks and had a total of 54 respondents. The findings of this study suggest that consumers' concern for environmental issues, their knowledge of organic foods, as well as their concerns about food safety, all contribute to their attitude toward the purchase intention of organic foods. Moreover, their positive attitude did translate into their actual purchasing of organic foods.
  • The Cultural Side of Entrepreneurship in the Middle East: Religion, Gender and Family

    Azouri, Marwan; Daou, Lindos; Entrepreneurship (Springer International Publishing, 2022-01-22)
    This chapter discusses the cultural side of entrepreneurship in the Middle East and how it influences business. In this context Hofstede developed a framework that explains how national cultures can influence organizational culture as well. We delve deeper into the discussion of the role of gender in entrepreneurship and focus on the limited role of women in the business world in the region. Another important element of culture is the role of the family, which traditionally has been the cornerstone for the sustainability of small businesses in the Middle East. Finally, the chapter concludes with looking at the importance of the role of religion as it affects businesses in the region, since religion has usually been considered a taboo subject for business. However, religion implicitly influences ways of doing business and routine practices in all organizations.
  • The critical success factors of restaurant franchisors in Lebanon

    Daou, Lindos; Nasr, Nathalie; Azouri, Marwan; External Collaboration; Marketing; Daou, Lindos (2023-01-05)
    This research aims to determine the effect of selected organizational factors on the success of Lebanese restaurant franchisors. It will identify the critical success factors of Lebanese restaurants facilitating their expansion and growth. The research is based on a quantitative study that examines the dependency of franchise success on five specific factors studied in this research (preset and definitive franchisee selection criteria, internationalization at a shorter length of time, years of experience in the food and beverage (F&B) and/or the franchise business, proportions of company owned outlets versus franchised outlet and short payback period on the return on investment (ROI) of the franchised outlet). Results revealed that success of franchising depends on a variety of factors some of which were already tackled in this research: internationalizing at the right time, years of experience in the F&B and/or the franchise business, and proportions of company owned outlets versus franchised outlets.
  • The Perceived Image of Nudity in Digital Advertisements

    Daou, Lindos; College Collaboration; Daou, Lindos (18 January)
    The perception of nudity in ads is a very wide and critical topic and it has been commonly used in advertising campaigns in different countries. Many factors influence the perception of customers in advertisements such as gender, education level, culture and race. The purpose of this study is to determine how taboo related to sex and nudity is perceived in ads and how it effects the brand itself. Data was collected via an online questionnaire and was distributed to Lebanese women of different age groups, educational levels, religions, affiliations and occupations. The results showed that nudity level affects consumers’ attention and interpretation of digital advertisements. Furthermore, the study concluded that the presence of nudity in ads has an effect over the purchasing intention.
  • Business and Social Media in the Middle East

    Daou, Lindos; College Collaboration; Marketing; Daou, Lindos (Springer International Publishing, 2020)
  • Impact of Facebook marketing on Lebanese athletes' decision-making process

    Daou, Lindos; College Collaboration; Marketing; Daou, Lindos (Inderscience, 2018-06-02)
    This article tackles the impact of Facebook marketing on the Lebanese sports community. It explores the different components of social media marketing tools while stressing on Facebook as a mean of influencing athletes' decision-making process. Hypotheses were generated to analyse the relationships between the following three factors of Facebook marketing: athlete Facebook interaction, daily exposure, and ads including brand ambassadors and the consumers' decision-making process. Our study was carried out on a sample of 385 athletes affiliated to sports clubs, NGO's, sports associations, sports communities and sports brand ambassadors. The results of the empirical study revealed a positive relationship between Facebook marketing and the decision-making process of the Lebanese sports society. Furthermore, it stressed on the importance of Facebook interaction as it deemed to be a catalyst to brand's image, and has an indirect impact on sales. Ads including sports brand ambassadors were shown to play an important role as well as in enhancing brand's sales.
  • The Effectiveness of Nostalgic Marketing on the Market Offerings in Saudi Arabia

    Tayachi, Tahar; Idrees, Shaima; Marketing
    As the market offerings are increasing and new deferent alternatives of these offerings are being introduced to the market every day, marketers are coming up with deferent ways and concepts to promote their products or services. The deferent ways and concepts that are used in promotion help in differentiating between the offerings that the market has. This research aims to understand the meaning of nostalgic marketing and its effect on the market of Saudi Arabia. This study will highlight the importance of nostalgic marketing and the respond that it generates in the market of Saudi Arabia. The target population will be the population of Jeddah. Survey method will be used where the survey participants will be more than 100. The survey will be carried out using digital survey forms e.g.: iPad, tablet etc. The findings of this research According to the report, tailored advertisements are the most effective nostalgic stimulus in Saudi Arabia, followed by joyful memories, communal nostalgia, and cultural nostalgia, with digital nostalgia being the least successful nostalgic notion employed in this market. When the five nostalgia triggers are applied in marketing, they might elicit three different emotions from the Saudi market: emotional, cognitive, and behavioral reactions. These reactions can occur as a single reaction or all three at the same time from the same commercial, and they can come as a and out come from the market after multiple advertisements were placed in it. According to the poll, joyful memories and communal nostalgia stimuli will elicit an emotional response the majority of the time, whereas tailored advertisements, cultural nostalgia, and digital nostalgia will elicit a cognitive response.
  • Impact of Covid-19 On Saudi Consumers Behavior Examining Consumers Preference For Using Online Shopping Apps Websites

    Javid, Uzma; Binsiddiq, Sulafa; Human Resource Management
    The Coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic is one of the largest human tragedies ever encountered on the globe. It has affected and is still affecting millions of peoples’ health, mentally and physically in addition to the global economy. It has significantly impacted thousands of companies around the world and forced businesses to close due to many disruptions. Different economies in various countries have been affected due to the major shifts and reshaping of consumers’ behavior. Consumers were forced to adapt their behavior daily. Moreover, considering the restricted circumstances due to the pandemic and lockdown online shopping has become more attractive and probably more convenient to consumers. This paper aims to study the impact of Covid-19 on Saudi consumers’ behavior and examine Saudi consumers’ preferences for using online shopping apps and websites to predict the future behaviors of businesses to adapt to these changes. This research uses a quantitative approach. The target population will be Saudi consumers. A survey method will be used where the survey participants will be 100 or more. The findings of this research display that Saudi consumers currently prefer online shopping apps/websites as they grew more reliable and convenient with many advantages during the pandemic.