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  • Translation Techniques and Problems: With the Translation and Analysis of a Short Story:"Frozen, the Junior Novelization" by Nathan and Roman

    Jday, Wassim; wassim; Algamdi, Fatemah; English & Translation
    The aim of this research paper is to translate some chapters of a short English novel "Frozen, the junior novelization" (Nathan and Roman, 2013), to Arabic language. This story is one of the most famous stories from Disney and had been made into a popular movie. The Translation technique or strategies, and the problems that faced for the translator, the obstacle and techniques used while translating the story will be illustrated, to help translators overcome the obstacle and use the proper strategies while translating
  • KNOWLEDGE-BASED VIBRANT SOCIETY: Woman’s Design Center.

    Refaat, Ahmed Mohamed; Alrashed, Nouf; Architecture
  • Strategies for Urban Regeneration of The Deteriorated Areas

    Prof. Dr. Mohammed Fekry, Prof. Dr. Ahmed Refaat, Associate; Fekry; A.Alobeid, Nawar; Architecture
    As a result of urban sprawl in Jeddah that led to losing control over the old neighborhoods and focusing more on developing new neighborhoods that attract residents through internal migration. Therefore, many deteriorated areas and slums started to appear in the urban fabric of Jeddah. However, not all these deteriorated areas need the same level of urban regeneration. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to provide a classification tool for these deteriorated areas that will contribute in helping the developers and decision-makers in the regeneration process. So, the research will address how the deteriorated areas could be classified according to specific characteristics and criteria, and what are the appropriate strategies for upgrading or regenerating each case. The data collection is derived from previous literature reviews, research studies, and different case studies of existing projects as well. The survey study will be directed to experts in the field, in order to verify the importance of the proposed characteristics that contribute to build the desired framework model. The results of the survey will examine the validation and effectiveness of the developed framework at the local scale. As it will be applied in one of the deteriorated neighborhoods of Jeddah. Finally, conclusion and recommendations will be provided at the end of the research. As it will measures the accuracy of the developed framework, and shows the extent to which developers and decision makers will rely on this framework as a classification tool measurement, for generating all the deteriorated areas whether in local or international contexts.
  • The Impact of Working Capital Management on the Financial Performance of the Energy Sector of Saudi Arabia

    BenSaïda, Ahmed; Saleh, Alaa; Finance
    This study aims to investigate the relationship between working capital management (WCM) and the financial performance of the Saudi energy sector. Previous research indicated that working capital management consists of managing five core components: Cash, Accounts receivable, Accounts payable, Inventory and Short-term debt. However, the impact of only three of them on the financial performance will be examined. These three are: Accounts receivable, Accounts payable, and Short-term debt. Furthermore, the data were collected from the financial statements of all the six energy companies listed in Tadawul during the period of 2019-2022. In this study, Current ratio is used as a proxy for WCM while Return on Assets is used to assess the financial performance. In addition, Debt to Equity ratio is used as a moderate variable to examine the leverage impact on the financial performance. To analyse these variables, a linear regression model is used. Results show that there is not enough evidence to say that working capital management affect the financial performance of the Saudi energy sector, which is not the case for leverage as it does impact the sector. In addition, possible justifications for these findings are provided. Finally, this study recommends other research to investigate why working capital management may not impact the financial performance of the Saudi energy sector.
  • Impact of FinTech growth on bank performance in GCC region

    BenSaïda, Ahmed; Litimi, Houda; Raheem, Mohamed Mahees; Department Collaboration; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; Finance; 0; et al. (Sage, 2024-01)
    This article investigates the effect of financial technology (FinTech) growth on bank performance in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region. The application is conducted on a panel dataset containing annual observations of banks from 2012 to 2021 using the generalized method of moments (GMM) method. FinTech growth is set as an explanatory variable on three proxies of bank performance, namely, return on assets (ROA), return on equity (ROE), and net interest margin (NIM). Moreover, several control variables are added to the model, including bank-specific and macroeconomic variables. The results are significant as all the proxies of bank performance are negatively affected by the growth of FinTech startups. Consequently, banks are urged to proactively invest in FinTech startups and engage in partnerships to avoid the risk of disruption.
  • The Effect of Social Media Advertising on the Restaurant Industry of Saudi Arabia

    Ahmed, Manzar; Almoalad, Hammdah; Marketing
    The rapid growth and widespread adoption of social media platforms has revolutionized the way businesses promote their products and services. The restaurant industry, in particular, has realized the huge potential of social media advertising as a powerful tool to reach and engage with a large customer base. This research aims to clarify the impact of social media on the restaurant industry in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to help us formulate the study question. The research question in this study is: “How does social media advertising affect the restaurant industry in Saudi Arabia?” The literature review is done by different researchers, academics and scholars who have previously researched similar topics. A sample of 100 participants was selected for the research. Including students and employees aged 18 to 48 years. A research survey was developed and FourEye survey and graphical analysis were used to determine the results. The results of this study showed that social media advertising can positively impact the restaurant industry in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by significantly increasing brand awareness of restaurants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. By leveraging different social media platforms such as Instagram, Twitter, and Snapchat, restaurants can also reach a wide audience. It has also been shown that social media advertising can have a negative impact on the restaurant industry through which negative reviews or customer complaints can spread quickly. It harms the reputation of the restaurant. One negative experience shared on social media can have a significant impact on a restaurant's image and discourage potential customers from visiting. Social media advertising can also influence consumer behavior switching intention, purchase intention and attitudes
  • The Effect of Diversification On Firms Performance Case Of Saudi Arabia

    Raheem, Mohamed Mahees; Badrah, Reem; Finance
    The study examines The Effect of Diversification on Firm Performance Case of Saudi Arabia. The aim of the study investigate how diversification impacts the financial performance of Saudi Arabia Firms Explore the dependent and independent variables that has direct or indirect relationship with performance and diversification. Moreover, the data will be imported from TASI & Bloomberg for five industry Listed in Tadawul which are Food and beverage, Diversified Financials, Food & Staples, Retailing, Energy, Capital Goods, Consumer Durables & Apparel, Materials, Bank in each industry we select five companies total firms forty. During period of time 2012 -2022. The model that will be used Regression model, to minimize the variance between the observed responses and the predicted one. This paper found diversification has a insignificant relationship on firm performance, the diversified firms have lower performance than non-diversified firms, lastly Diversified firms profitable more than undiversified firms.
  • The Effect of Social Media Advertising on the Restaurant Industry of Saudi Arabia

    Manzarahmed, Anwarahmed; Almoalad, Hammdah; Marketing
    The rapid growth and widespread adoption of social media platforms has revolutionized the way businesses promote their products and services. The restaurant industry, in particular, has realized the huge potential of social media advertising as a powerful tool to reach and engage with a large customer base. This research aims to clarify the impact of social media on the restaurant industry in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to help us formulate the study question. The research question in this study is: “How does social media advertising affect the restaurant industry in Saudi Arabia?” The literature review is done by different researchers, academics and scholars who have previously researched similar topics. A sample of 100 participants was selected for the research. Including students and employees aged 18 to 48 years. A research survey was developed and FourEye survey and graphical analysis were used to determine the results. The results of this study showed that social media advertising can positively impact the restaurant industry in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by significantly increasing brand awareness of restaurants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. By leveraging different social media platforms such as Instagram, Twitter, and Snapchat, restaurants can also reach a wide audience. It has also been shown that social media advertising can have a negative impact on the restaurant industry through which negative reviews or customer complaints can spread quickly. It harms the reputation of the restaurant. One negative experience shared on social media can have a significant impact on a restaurant's image and discourage potential customers from visiting. Social media advertising can also influence consumer behavior switching intention, purchase intention and attitudes.
  • Speech emotion recognition

    balfagih, zain; Ahmed, Fatima; Computer Science
    In this study, a deep learning model was developed to recognize emotions in speech. The model used a combination of Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) for feature extraction and a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) layer to capture contextual information. The model was trained and tested on a speech database called the Toronto Emotional Speech Set. The results showed that the model was able to achieve high accuracy in emotion recognition, exceeding 95% for model accuracy and 97% for validation accuracy. The authors suggest that this type of model could be used to improve the ability of AI systems to understand and respond to human emotions, potentially enhancing the user experience in tasks such as voice commands, messaging, and recommendation systems.
  • Resilience amidst turmoil: a multi-resolution analysis of portfolio diversification in emerging markets during global financial and health crises

    Smolo, Edib; Nagayev, Ruslan; Jahangir, Rashed; Tarazi, Christo S. C.; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; Finance; 0; et al. (2023-10-11)
    Using Wavelet Coherence, Frequency Interconnectedness and Spillover methodologies, this study investigates the dynamic comovements and spillover effects between emerging markets (BRICS and Türkiye) with a specific emphasis on the effects of the GFC and COVID-19 pandemic. It aims to compare the impact of these events on portfolio diversification in the equity markets from the perspective of international equity investors. The results indicate that the stock markets are positively interlinked and depend on the time and frequency of returns. Significant correlations among the equity markets and a spike in overall spillover are also evident in the recent period due to the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings can be useful for policymakers and investors in their decision making.
  • The efficiency of Participation Banking Sector in Turkey: A DEA Approach

    Smolo, Edib; Iqbal, Mohamed Ashraf; Akdemir, Ayşe; Finance (Springer, 2024-02-15)
    There are six participation banks in Turkey, and they are expected to contribute significantly to the economy in the future. The aim of this study is to assess the efficiency of these participation banks based on financial data from 2010 to 2020. Data envelopment analysis (DEA), a non-parametric efficiency approach, is used in this study with three input variables (profit share expenses, personnel expenses, and total funds), and two output variables (profit share income and net profit). While Kuveyt Türk, Ziraat Katılım, and Türkiye Finans are found to be the most efficient, Albaraka Türk and Vakıf Katılım are inefficient – at least when the most recent observations (2018-2020) and the four-year moving average efficiency score for both outputs and inputs are used. As for the overall average scores, Türkiye Finans is the most efficient participation bank, followed by Ziraat Katılım and Vakıf Katılım. The least efficient participation banks are Kuveyt Türk and Albaraka Türk. For participation banks to gain a larger share of the market and to continue contributing to overall economic growth, policymakers must pay attention to these underperforming banks.
  • Asymmetric Impact of Microfinance on Economic Growth: Evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Smolo, Edib; No Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; Finance; 0; Smolo, Edib (2023-12)
    This study explores the correlation between microfinance loans (MFL) and economic growth in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia). It utilizes the non-linear Autoregressive Distributed Lag (NARDL) method to examine cointegration and short-run dynamics by analyzing quarterly data spanning from 2010 to 2022. The findings underscore the link between MFL shocks and long-term economic growth. The study unveils the unique effects of both positive and negative MFL shocks on growth, suggesting a non-linear relationship between microfinance loans and economic growth in Bosnia. However, the study concludes that the impact of MFL on Bosnia's GDP is adverse. Short-term fluctuations in MFL show no substantial influence on Bosnian economic growth. The coefficient of the error correction model is both negative and significant indicating the stability of the long-term relationship. This implies a rapid correction, with 46.4 % of the previous quarter's imbalance rectified within the current quarter. While our results are based on a single country, they align with recent criticisms of microfinance practices. Furthermore, our study offers a novel approach as it represents the first examination of the asymmetric relationship between MFL and GDP in Bosnia, providing valuable policy recommendations.
  • A Bayesian Approach to Analyse the Nexus Between the Environmental and Financial Factors to Affect Energy Efficiency in the GCC Region

    Shaheen, Rozina; No Collaboration; Islamic Finance Studies Unit; 0; 0; Finance; 0; Shaheen, Rozina (2023-02-04)
    Energy, being a significant input in the production process is considered an important element in the socio- economic development of a country. In this context, global economy is concentrating on attaining financial stability through increased energy efficiency and plummeting the energy intensity. Efficient use of energy enables the countries to improve their trade balance whereas it helps to reduce operating costs at micro level. Using energy-efficient techniques can reduce the environmental risks posed by the higher level of economic activity. Similarly, development of financial sector stimulates economic efficiency through the expansion in the financial activities (Sadorsky, 2010). Financial development helps to reduce cost of borrowing and financial risk, thereby creating transparency between lenders and borrowers. In addition, financial sector development facilitates the acquisition of sophisticated energy efficiency products and technology. However, with the rapid economic development, the environmental degradation has become a focus point for the nations across the globe. The feedback effects from environment to economic growth have stimulated the researchers to investigate the reasons for environmental dilapidation and determine the solutions for environmental conservation. Many of these research studies are encircled around the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis (Grossman &Krueger, 1991) which elaborates the linkages between the environmental degradation and economic growth. Middle Eastern economies are heavily reliant on the energy-based revenues and any curb on the energy production directly affects their economic growth in the region. Furthermore, financial system in the Middle Eastern region is technologically advanced with strong regulatory frameworks related to data protection, consumer protection, cybersecurity, and anti-money laundering. These regional characteristics provide a strong base to assess the existence of environmental Kuznets curve in the region and to examine the nexus between the financial sector development, economic growth, energy efficiency and Co2 emission in the region. The relationship between the environmental quality and economic growth is explored by various studies such as Jaeger et al. (1995), Tucker (1995), Barbier (1997), Horvath (1997), Ansuategi et al. (1998), List and Gallet (1999), Stern and Common (2001), Roca (2003), Dinda and Coondoo (2006), Coondoo and Dinda (2008) and Akbostanci et al. (2009). However, this research is unique as it is first to examine the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for the oil based Middle Eastern economies while using a conditionally homogenous autoregressive model for the panel of Middle Eastern economies. This model considers homogeneity across the cross-sectional units with identical structural characteristics. The panel conditionally homogenous vector autoregressive specification permits the heterogeneity in the dynamic panel data set and evaluates the relationship between the observed heterogeneity across the units and their structural characteristics
  • Impact of Capital Structure on Profitability in Saudi Arabia Sectors

    Shaheen, Rozina; Alahmadi, Manar; Master of Science in Finance
    This study attempts to find out the compositions of capital structure and their relationship with the profitability of companies in Saudi Arabia. The study used a 10 years (2012-2022) panel data of a sample of 50 companies as a major data input. By employing an explanatory research design, the study mainly tried to investigate the relationship between capital structure and profitability using a dependent variable (ROE ) and (ROA), independent variables that represented the capital structure: leverage , Long-Term Debt to Total Assets (LDA), Debt to Asset Ratio (DA), Debt to equity (DER), Short-term debt to total assets (SDA), total equity to total assets (TETA) and control variables: firm size, firm liquidity, and company growth and economic variables such as Gross Domestic Product growth rate, inflation rate , and SAIBOR rate .After the raw data had been collected and analyzed, results were computed, analyzed and presented using panel data analysis., descriptive statistics and correlation analysis methods fixed effect for ROA and random for ROE regression output model. The findings have shown that the capital structure of the sampled Saudi Arabia company was composed of more debt than equity. The regression analysis results the LDA, TETA, leverage, liquidity, growth, GDP, and inflation had positive and statistically significant effects on ROA, and SDA, DA, DER, size, and SAIBOR had negative and statistically significant effects on ROA. Where, LDA, TETA, leverage, liquidity, growth, size, and GDP had positive and statistically significant effects on ROA, and SDA, DER, inflation, and SAIBOR had positive and statistically significant effects on ROA at 1%, 5%, and 10% significant levels respectively . The study concludes that capital structure had a significant impact on the profitability of companies in Saudi Arabia and recommends that it become more profitable and attain optimal capital structure and company value. The Saudi company should give greater attention to the variables: DER, leverage, size, GDP, and SAIBOR which were found to be strongly related to their company performance.
  • The Impact of Financial Development on Environment, Social, and Governance (ESG) Performance: The Case of MENA Countries

    Smolo, Edib; Alsuhaibani, Alhanouf; Master of Science in Finance
    In recent times, the world has witnessed rapid development that has generated a substantial loss of habitat and degradation of the environment. This situation poses significant risks of natural disasters for many nations. The development of green technology has been identified as pivotal in curtailing environmental hazards, and financial development has been lauded for its role in funding this endeavor. However, there needs to be more research concerning the impact of financial development on environmental, social, and governance (ESG) performance, which is a crucial element of sustainable management. The present study aims to address this gap in knowledge by investigating the association between financial development and ESG performance in 17 MENA countries from 2012 to 2020. Various financial development indicators, such as global financial development, financial institutions, and financial markets, are analyzed to gauge their impact on ESG behavior. Factors such as trade openness (TO), economic growth (GDP), and foreign direct investment (FDI) flows critical features that are examined, with a specific focus on the relationship between economic growth and environmental, social, and governance (ESG) performance in the MENA region. These findings offer important insights that could inform policy-making promoting sustainable economic development while considering the environmental and social implications.
  • The Effect of Diversification On Firms Performance Case Of Saudi Arabia

    Raheem, Mohamed Mahees; Badrah, Reem; Finance
    The study examines The Effect of Diversification on Firm Performance Case of Saudi Arabia. The aim of the study investigate how diversification impacts the financial performance of Saudi Arabia Firms Explore the dependent and independent variables that has direct or indirect relationship with performance and diversification. Moreover, the data will be imported from TASI & Bloomberg for five industry Listed in Tadawul which are Food and beverage, Diversified Financials, Food & Staples, Retailing, Energy, Capital Goods, Consumer Durables & Apparel, Materials, Bank in each industry we select five companies total firms forty. During period of time 2012 -2022. The model that will be used Regression model, to minimize the variance between the observed responses and the predicted one. This paper found diversification has a insignificant relationship on firm performance, the diversified firms have lower performance than non-diversified firms, lastly Diversified firms profitable more than undiversified firms.
  • Financial Performance Analysis of the Hospitality Industry in Saudi Arabia

    Smolo, Edib; Almotairi, Waad; Finance
    This study examines the performance of the hospitality industry in Saudi Arabia by traditional financial ratios over the past five years by using the financial statements from the Saudi Exchange Tadawul website. The study aims to analyze the financial performance of hospitality companies to explore the development ratio of the hospitality field in Saudi Arabia, included in the Tadawul during the 2018-2022 period. It will examine the financial performance of the hospitality industry by using ROE and ROA affected by the leverage, Liquidity, Size, and GROW. From the results, it was seen that Hospitality companies in Saudi Arabia should focus on improving their net margin and asset turnover to improve their financial performance. Consequently, the hospitality industry's financial performance has been adversely affected by COVID-19.
  • Gender, entrepreneurship and the digital divide: a global perspective

    Visvizi, Anna; Lytras, Miltiadis; Chuman, Merwat; Sarirete, Akila; Kozłowski, Krzysztof; University Collaboration; Urban Design Lab; 0; 0; Entrepreneurship; et al. (Emerald Publishing, 2023-10-11)
    The concepts and terms defining the thrust of this special issue, i.e. gender, entrepreneurship (Berger et al., 2021), the digital divide (Bowen and Morris, 2019; Millan et al., 2021; Satalkina et al., 2021), Global South (Simaan, 2020) and Global North, are very well established in the literature. Nevertheless, relatively little has been written about (1) the gendered dimension of the digital divide, (2) the digital divide and the gendered dimension of entrepreneurship (Elliott et al., 2021); and finally, (3) the specificity of these topics as they are in the Global South and Global North's peripheries (Ojediran and Anderson, 2020; Wood et al., 2021; Althalathini et al., 2020). Even if research on each of these individual domains exists, relatively little research on the intersection of these three areas exists (but cf. Visvizi et al., 2023, and earlier Kasusse, 2005; Alden, 2003). Notably, given the pace and the pervasive impact of digital transformation globally, and their diverse political, social and economic manifestations, it is necessary that the mechanisms underlying these interconnected issues and developments are identified and explored. This special issue sought to encourage this kind of conversation, always in context of the United Nation's (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
  • THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIAL, AND GOVERNANCE (ESG) IN PREDICTING FINANCIAL DISTRESS CASE OF KSA

    Mahees, Mohamed; Alqashqari, Marwah; Finance
    This study explores the potential of environmental, social, and governance (ESG) metrics in predicting financial distress in Saudi Arabian industries over an eleven-year period from 2012 to 2022. We start by defining what financial distress is. Financial distress occurs when a company is unable to meet its financial obligations due to insufficient earnings or income. Our research shows that incorporating ESG metrics enhances the capability to identify financial distress. Using ESG data reduces the likelihood of misclassifying struggling or delinquent industries as financially stable. We employ the Z score model to identify industries with a high risk of failure and examine how ESG factors influence a company's performance and impact the investors' decision-making. Our results demonstrate that industries with lower ESG scores are more likely to experience financial distress, while industries with higher ESG scores are more likely to remain financially stable over time. Moreover, we found that ESG metrics can provide valuable insights into a company's risk exposure and potential for long-term financial sustainability. The implications of our study extend beyond the Saudi Arabian context and have broader relevance for investors and policymakers seeking to assess the financial health and sustainability of companies across different industries. Our findings highlight the importance of incorporating ESG metrics into financial analysis and decision-making processes, particularly in the context of emerging markets where companies may face higher levels of environmental and social risks.
  • Causes Of Financial Distress In Saudi Insurance Industry

    Shaheen, Rozina; AlQathmi, Joud; Finance
    The insurance industry in Saudi Arabia has grown significantly in recent years, but this expansion has also introduced additional challenges. Financial distress, which may be brought on by a number of circumstances, is one of the biggest problems insurance businesses encounter. In the following paper, we examine the factors that contribute to and determine financial difficulties in the Saudi Arabian insurance sector. Our investigation is limited to a sample of 20 Saudi Arabian insurance firms. To investigate the elements that lead to financial hardship in this sector, we utilize a panel data set spanning the years 2015 to 2020. Our findings suggest that important predictors of financial distress in the Saudi Arabia insurance industry include variables including capital adequacy, liquidity, and profitability. Additionally, we discover that macroeconomic factors like inflation and GDP growth significantly affect financial distress. Our findings specifically imply that lower levels of financial distress in the insurance sector are related with better GDP growth rates and lower inflation rates. Also, we look into how regulatory issues affect financial hardship in the Saudi insurance sector. Our findings imply that regulatory elements like market structure and solvency standards have a major effect on financial distress. Particularly, we show that insurance businesses are less likely to encounter financial trouble if they operate in a more competitive market and if they are subject to tougher solvency rules. Overall, our findings offer understanding into the elements that fuel the financial crisis in the Saudi insurance sector. Our study's findings indicate that in order to lower their risk of financial difficulty, insurance businesses should concentrate on maintaining appropriate capital and liquidity levels as well as increasing profitability. To lessen the probability of financial difficulty in the business, regulators may also take into account enacting stronger solvency criteria and encouraging competition in the insurance market.

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