Recent Submissions

  • Exploring Significance of Word-of-Mouth Marketing: A Systematic Review Analysis of Sustainable Marketing Strategies from an Islamic Perspective

    Husain, Muhammad Khalid; Siddique, Muhammad; Nadvi, Muhammad Junaid; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; General Education; 0; Nadvi, Muhammad Junaid (Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology, 2023-12)
    Purpose: Marketing is a powerful instrument to promote goods and services, and word-of-mouth is used as a marketing strategy. This article aims to develop a theme from existing literature by systematically reviewing the literature. This paper also explores the ethical and Islamic dimensions of the word-of-mouth marketing. Methodology: The authors used the best-known Science Direct database to search online literature, including 1,164 research and 69 Exploring Significance of Word-of-Mouth Marketing: A Systematic Review 31 review articles available in peer-reviewed journals between 2019 and 2022, and to shape the paper after conducting a thorough literature review and setting exclusion criteria. The studies proved it is a simple and easy way of marketing communication. Finding: The findings uncover the efficacy of this modern way of marketing. The study concluded that this way of marketing is a sustainable tool of marketing that provides the guidelines to be implemented by researchers, academicians, and policymakers in the future. Furthermore, a wide range of overlapping dimensions have been found between sustainable, ethical, and Islamic perspectives. Novelty: The novelty of the paper is that very few studies on the topic are available on Science Direct database sites. Furthermore, few studies have discussed the ethical implications of word-of-mouth marketing.
  • The Effects of Peer Coaching on Faculty Development in the Context of Higher Education

    Kaj-Itani, Khadija; No Collaboration; NA; NA; NA; General Education; NA; Kaj-Itani, Khadija (University of Bahrain, 2015-07-01)
    Faculty development has been one of the major concerns for many educational institutions and organizations across the world. Peer coaching, among others, has been identified as an effective strategy just for that. For instance, Ohio Department of Education has collaborated with the Center for Essential School Reform to engage in intensive teacher development. The present study reports on an investigation into the use of peer coaching for staff development in Sharjah University, one of the leading universities in the Arabian Gulf. Certain qualitative instruments were constructed such as interviews and subjective questionnaires to collect data on the effects of using peer coaching in this University, while quantitative considerations were resorted to in the analysis so as to compliment the findings statistically. The questionnaire was administered in both Arabic and English to participants from different academic departments. It was based on five constructs, namely 1) the helpfulness of the coaching process for the observers, the observerees, 2) the observerees‟ feelings about the possible perpetuation of the coaching program 3)faculty's feedback 4) attitudes, and 5) recommendations regarding the process. Five of the respondents who had completed the questionnaire were also involved in semi-structured interviews. The management claimed that peer coaching would contribute to the development of the teachers and thereby enhance their students‟ learning skills. However, the data collected from open- ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews revealed that the use of peer coaching in the University had limited effects. Analysis of these data depending on certain categories uncovered the reasons for this limitation. This study concludes with recommendations, which could lead to the desired outcomes of peer coaching and consequently enhance student achievement.
  • Increased Effectiveness of Schools through Ethical Educational Leadership

    Kaj-Itani, Khadija; Khalid, Mohammad; Department Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; General Education; 0; Kaj-Itani, Khadija (University of Bahrain, 2022-07-01)
    This case study focuses on two schools in Lebanon that have gained substantial recognition for providing high-quality education after their continuous success in the official General Secondary Exams. The supposed ethical leadership approach employed at these schools is studied here in order to examine whether it has played a role in their respective success. A number of stakeholders participated in the study through a survey, while eight people were interviewed including the two directors, the two principals, and the four coordinators. Further informal discussions were carried out with a couple of teachers outside the school premises. The analysis reveals a strong link between the highly relationship-oriented work environment at the schools under study and their noticeable success.
  • Problem Focused Coping and Stress in Cancer Patients: A Mediating Role of Emotion-Focused Coping

    Khalid, Mohammad; Yaseen, Faiqa; Taskeen, Sayyeda Zahra; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; General Education; 0; Jamal, Yousaf (Kamla-Raj Enterprises, 2022)
    Cancer is a life-threatening disease that greatly influences the psycho-social health and well-being of affected individuals. The present study looks into the role of emotion-focused coping as a mediator variable in the relationship between problem-focused coping and perceived stress in cancer patients. A purposive sample of 200 (male = 41%, female = 59%) cancer patients was taken from different cancer hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. Perceived Stress Scale and Brief Cope Inventory were used to investigate the perceived stress and coping strategies of the participants. The findings of correlation analysis indicated the interrelatedness of emotion-focused coping, problem-focused coping, and perceived stress. Findings of mediation analysis revealed that emotion-focused coping significantly plays a mediating role between problem-focused coping and perceived stress in cancer patients. These findings have practical implications for counseling cancer patients to overcome their stress and adopt effective coping strategies to deal with their stress.
  • A Preliminary Validation of the Brief COPE Inventory for Assessing Coping Strategies among Pakistani House Job Doctors

    Khalid, Mohammad; Yaseen, Faiqa; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; General Education; 0; Jamal, Yousaf (Institute of Psychological Research, 2022-06-30)
    Health care is one of the most challenging professions associated with several challenges and issues leading the doctors and nurses towards several mental health issues which make it necessary to explore coping strategies and skills that help the professionals in overcoming their mental health issues. As a result, the present study was conducted on a sample of Pakistani house-job doctors to validate the Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced (COPE) scale. A sample of 315 house-job doctors (men = 60%, women = 40%) employed in various hospitals of Lahore was recruited through purposive sampling method. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used at first to confirm Carver's factor structure, which resulted in poor fit. As a result, the structure of coping factor in a Pakistani sample was investigated through an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). Problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping, and avoidant coping were discovered to be three-factor solution of COPE. Furthermore, the scale had high psychometric qualities including good reliability and validity.
  • Exploring the Historical Significance of the Social Security and Welfare Systems in Islam: The Era of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab

    Khalid, Mohammad; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; General Education; 0; Nadvi, Junaid (University of Malaya, 2023-06-19)
    Islam's social security system differs in nature and operation from the social security systems that are widely used around the world. The Muslim world has had access to a commendable social security system from the beginning of Islam, therefore modern social security systems are nothing new to them. In this article, the Islamic social security system under the rule of 'Umar ibn al-Khattb, the second khalifah of Islam, is studied historically.
  • Increased Effectiveness of Schools through Ethical Educational Leadership

    Khalid, Mohammad; Department Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; General Education; 0; Itani, Khadija (University of Bahrain, 2022-07-01)
    This case study focuses on two schools in Lebanon that have gained substantial recognition for providing high-quality education after their continuous success in the official General Secondary Exams. The supposed ethical leadership approach employed at these schools is studied here in order to examine whether it has played a role in their respective success. A number of stakeholders participated in the study through a survey, while eight people were interviewed including the two directors, the two principals, and the four coordinators. Further informal discussions were carried out with a couple of teachers outside the school premises. The analysis reveals a strong link between the highly relationship-oriented work environment at the schools under study and their noticeable success.
  • “Agamemnon conquered. An Analysis of the Character of Agamemnon in the “Troades” Of the Roman Poet Seneca”,

    KHALIL, MOHAMED; No Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; General Education; 0; KHALIL, MOHAMED (Periodical of the center of studies of Papyrus and inscriptions. Ein Shams University - Cairo, 2013-04-05)
    لا شك أن شخصية أجاممنون كانت من أكثر الشخصيات غرابة فى الموروث الإغريقى . فهو ملك الملوك الإغريق وقائد حرب طروادة. وهوأيضاً العاشق المندفع الذى لم يجد حرجاً فى أن يستولى على خريسئيس إبنة خريسيس كاهن معبد أبوللو ومحظية أخيليس Achilles، أقوى المحاربين الإغريق. فتدفع الجيوش الإغريقية ثمناً باهظاً للغضب الذى صبه أبوللو عليهم عقاباً على ما اقترفه أجاممنون. لقد اعتبرأجاممنون أن هناك معركة خاصة بينه وبين أخيليوس, ولابد له أن يخرج منتصراً من هذه المعركة. حتى أن الإلياذة بدأت بأهم حدث فى الحروب الطروادية, وهو غضب أخيليوس نفسه من تَعنُّت أجاممنون ضده والتعالى عليه والإستيلاء على محظيته (الإلياذة – الكتاب الأول 1-6). بل إن أجاممنون عندما عَدَل عن قراره وأعاد محظية أخيليوس, عاد يندفع مرة أخرى فى تهديده لأخيليوس بإنه سيأتى إلى خيمته ليأخذ خريسيئس عنوة. وفى النهاية سقطت طروادة وقُتِل أخيليوس ووقف أجاممنون بين أنقاض المدينة المهزومة. يعاين بنفسه أثار الهزيمة والدمار الذى لحق بطروادة. ويستمع إلى صراخ الجرحى وعويل النساء وبكاء الأطفال. فيقف أجاممنون بين كل ذلك كمنتصر ويبدأ فى الاستعداد للرحيل عن طروادة والعودة إلى مملكته بعد غياب دام عشر سنوات . لكن يبدو أن حلقة الصراع بين أجاممنون وأخيليوس لم تنتهى برغم موت أخيليوس نفسه. فها هو بيروس Pyrrhus, ابن أخيليوس, يقف فى مواجهة أجاممنون مطالباً إياه بتقديم بوليكسينا ابنة برياموس كضحية ملكية إرضائاً لروح والده الذى مات فى سبيل انتصار الإغريق فى الحرب. بل إن بيروس يهدد أجاممنون بالقتل إن لم يستجيب لما يطلبه منه. يمكننا ملاحظة أن سينيكا يرسم فى مسرحية الطرواديات ذلك المشهد الذى يجمع كلاً من أجاممنون وبيروس, ويصور فيه سينيكا الحوار الذى احتدم بين أجاممنون وبيروس والذى ينتهى بنبؤة كالخاس, الذى يعلن بدوره عن ضرورة تقديم بوليكسينا Polyxena ومعها أخيها أستياناكس Astyanax كضحيتين ملكيتين إرضائاً لروح البطل المقتول. عندها يصمت أجاممنون ويزعن لنبؤة كالخاس وينسحب من الحدث الدرامى تماماً. لقد ظن أجاممنون أنه قد امتلك الحكمة بابتعاده عن التَكَبُر واظهار خوفه من الإمعان فى الانتقام من أعدائه, المتمثلين فى من تَبقّى من نسل برياموس. لكن خوف أجاممنون ومحاولته أن يلعب دور الملك المنتصر الحكيم, وموعظته لبيروس بالتخلى عن فكرة قتل بوليكسينا, إلى جانب البعد عن إغضاب الآلهة, كل ذلك أصبح دون قيمة بعد أن دُمِّرت طروادة عن بكرة أبيها. لقد أوضح سينيكا فى مسرحية ثيستيس أن من يرتكب جريمة ما فلابُد له أن ينتقل من جريمته الأولى إلى جريمة أخرى أكثر بشاعة. وإن من يرتكب جريمة يصبح من المستحيل أن يعود بعدها إلى الطريق المستقيم, أو أن يلعب دور الرجل الحكيم. عند هذه اللحظة يصبح أجاممنون مهزوما، الذى كان من الأفضل له أن لا يتخلى عن ما عُرِف عنه من غطرسة وتَكبُّر. فكان جزائه أن يتحول ليصبح صورة باهته من ملك ضعيف، حيث يظهر كل شخص من حوله وكأنه أقوى من أجاممنون نفسه.. بيروس وتهديداته بقتله أجاممنون أو إثارة الجنود ضده, وصولاً إلى إعلان كالخاس الذى لا يَرقى إلى مرتبة النبؤة. لكنها لم يَكُن سوى إعلان سياسى بتأييد القائد المنتصر الجديد، بيروس، وسقوط الملك أجاممنون مهزوما.
  • Aeschylus between Writing History and Fiction of Drama. A study in the Persians of Aeschylus”,

    KHALIL, MOHAMED; University Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; General Education; 0; KHALIL, MOHAMED (Department of Greek and Latin Studies - Cairo University, 2017-03-15)
    لا شك أن معركة سلاميس تميزت بكونها انتصارًا تاريخيًا فاصلًا في الصراع بين الإغريق والفرس. فكان انتصار الإغريق في هذه المعركة حاسما في مواجهة المد الفارسي وتحطيم أسطورة القوة الفارسية التي لا تقهر. ولا شك أن قيام أحد المؤرخين برصد أحداث تلك المعركة وتحليل أحداثها ونتائجها لهو أمر طبيعي. لكننا عندما نجد أنفسنا أمام شاعر في حجم أيسخولوس (Aeschylus) وهو ينظم مسرحية درامية يتناول فيها تبعات ما بعد المعركة وآثار الهزيمة الساحقة على الفرس شعبًا وحكامًا، فإن ذلك يصبح أمراً جديراً بالاهتمام. ويرتكز هذا الاهتمام على كون أيسخولوس نفسه واحداً من الجنود الذين نالوا شرف المشاركة في تلك المعركة العظيمة. فهو إذن الشاعر المحارب أو المحارب الشاعر، الذي طفق يوظف ما لديه من خبرة المحارب وموهبة المؤلف المسرحي في نظم مسرحية درامية تعبر عن رؤيته لهذا الصراع المرير بين الفرس الإغريق، وما انتهى إليه هذا الصراع من انتصار الإغريق.
  • “Agamemnon conquered. An Analysis of the Character of Agamemnon in the “Troades” Of the Roman Poet Seneca.

    KHALIL, MOHAMED; KHALIL, MOHAMED; No Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; General Education; 0; KHALIL, MOHAMED (Periodical of the center of studies of Papyrus and inscriptions. Ein Shams University - Cairo, 2013-04-10)
    ا شك أن شخصية أجاممنون كانت من أكثر الشخصيات غرابة فى الموروث الإغريقى . فهو ملك الملوك الإغريق وقائد حرب طروادة. وهوأيضاً العاشق المندفع الذى لم يجد حرجاً فى أن يستولى على خريسئيس إبنة خريسيس كاهن معبد أبوللو ومحظية أخيليس Achilles، أقوى المحاربين الإغريق. فتدفع الجيوش الإغريقية ثمناً باهظاً للغضب الذى صبه أبوللو عليهم عقاباً على ما اقترفه أجاممنون. لقد اعتبرأجاممنون أن هناك معركة خاصة بينه وبين أخيليوس, ولابد له أن يخرج منتصراً من هذه المعركة. حتى أن الإلياذة بدأت بأهم حدث فى الحروب الطروادية, وهو غضب أخيليوس نفسه من تَعنُّت أجاممنون ضده والتعالى عليه والإستيلاء على محظيته (الإلياذة – الكتاب الأول 1-6). بل إن أجاممنون عندما عَدَل عن قراره وأعاد محظية أخيليوس, عاد يندفع مرة أخرى فى تهديده لأخيليوس بإنه سيأتى إلى خيمته ليأخذ خريسيئس عنوة. وفى النهاية سقطت طروادة وقُتِل أخيليوس ووقف أجاممنون بين أنقاض المدينة المهزومة. يعاين بنفسه أثار الهزيمة والدمار الذى لحق بطروادة. ويستمع إلى صراخ الجرحى وعويل النساء وبكاء الأطفال. فيقف أجاممنون بين كل ذلك كمنتصر ويبدأ فى الاستعداد للرحيل عن طروادة والعودة إلى مملكته بعد غياب دام عشر سنوات . لكن يبدو أن حلقة الصراع بين أجاممنون وأخيليوس لم تنتهى برغم موت أخيليوس نفسه. فها هو بيروس Pyrrhus, ابن أخيليوس, يقف فى مواجهة أجاممنون مطالباً إياه بتقديم بوليكسينا ابنة برياموس كضحية ملكية إرضائاً لروح والده الذى مات فى سبيل انتصار الإغريق فى الحرب. بل إن بيروس يهدد أجاممنون بالقتل إن لم يستجيب لما يطلبه منه. يمكننا ملاحظة أن سينيكا يرسم فى مسرحية الطرواديات ذلك المشهد الذى يجمع كلاً من أجاممنون وبيروس, ويصور فيه سينيكا الحوار الذى احتدم بين أجاممنون وبيروس والذى ينتهى بنبؤة كالخاس, الذى يعلن بدوره عن ضرورة تقديم بوليكسينا Polyxena ومعها أخيها أستياناكس Astyanax كضحيتين ملكيتين إرضائاً لروح البطل المقتول. عندها يصمت أجاممنون ويزعن لنبؤة كالخاس وينسحب من الحدث الدرامى تماماً. لقد ظن أجاممنون أنه قد امتلك الحكمة بابتعاده عن التَكَبُر واظهار خوفه من الإمعان فى الانتقام من أعدائه, المتمثلين فى من تَبقّى من نسل برياموس. لكن خوف أجاممنون ومحاولته أن يلعب دور الملك المنتصر الحكيم, وموعظته لبيروس بالتخلى عن فكرة قتل بوليكسينا, إلى جانب البعد عن إغضاب الآلهة, كل ذلك أصبح دون قيمة بعد أن دُمِّرت طروادة عن بكرة أبيها. لقد أوضح سينيكا فى مسرحية ثيستيس أن من يرتكب جريمة ما فلابُد له أن ينتقل من جريمته الأولى إلى جريمة أخرى أكثر بشاعة. وإن من يرتكب جريمة يصبح من المستحيل أن يعود بعدها إلى الطريق المستقيم, أو أن يلعب دور الرجل الحكيم. عند هذه اللحظة يصبح أجاممنون مهزوما، الذى كان من الأفضل له أن لا يتخلى عن ما عُرِف عنه من غطرسة وتَكبُّر. فكان جزائه أن يتحول ليصبح صورة باهته من ملك ضعيف، حيث يظهر كل شخص من حوله وكأنه أقوى من أجاممنون نفسه.. بيروس وتهديداته بقتله أجاممنون أو إثارة الجنود ضده, وصولاً إلى إعلان كالخاس الذى لا يَرقى إلى مرتبة النبؤة. لكنها لم يَكُن سوى إعلان سياسى بتأييد القائد المنتصر الجديد، بيروس، وسقوط الملك أجاممنون مهزوما.
  • The Psychological and Sociological Dimensions of the Character of Miser. A study in the Aulularia by Plautus

    KHALIL, MOHAMED; No Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; General Education; 0; KHALIL, MOHAMED (Department of Greek and Latin Studies - Cairo University, 2021-03-07)
    ظهرت شخصيه البخيل في العديد من الاعمال الدرامية على مر العصور وفي ثقافات مختلفة وقد ارتبطت شخصيه البخيل غالبا في ظهورها بالملامح الكوميدية ولعل تلك الملامح كانت هي ما جعلها أكثر رواجا لدى الجمهور الذي كان ولا يزال يرى في تصرفات البخيل ماده مثيره للضحك والسخرية، وربما لا يشعر المتفرج تجاه شخصيه البخيل باي نوع من الشفقة تجاه ما يجلبه على نفسه من معانا نتيجة بخله. بيد أنه قد يشعر بنوع من الشفقة تجاه من يحيط بالبخيل من المقربين منه مثل الزوجة او الأبناء هؤلاء الذين يعانون اشد المعاناة من تصرفات البخيل واتباعه الدائم لسياسة خداع من حوله وايهامهم بانه لا يملك اي شيء وانه أكثر الناس احتياجا على الاطلاق ولقد رأينا في شخصيه البخيل في مسرحيه جره الذهب لبلاوتوس نموذجا قد يقترب في ابعاده كثيرا من شخصيه البخيل على مر العصور فلقد عانى كل من حوله من بخله حتى خادمته نفسها بالرغم من امتلاك لجره من الذهب ربما لو استغلها لعاش عيشة الملوك، لكنه البخل الذي يقف حائلا بين الانسان وكرامته وادميته واحساسه بمن يعيشون معه، فتتحول حياته الى مواقف يوميه تثير الضحك والسخرية في قلب وعقل كل من يعرف حقيقته، وتتحول الى معاناة لكل من يعيش معه ولا يدرك ماهيته The miser character has appeared in many dramas throughout the ages in different cultures, and its miser character has often been associated in its appearance with comic features. Perhaps those features were what made it more popular for audience, who was, and still sees in the miser’s behavior a funny and ridiculous subject. In addition, the audience might not feel towards the miser any kind of compassion for the suffering he brings to himself because of his miserliness. However, the audience might feel some kind of compassion towards those who are close to him, such as his wife or children, who are suffering most from the miser’s behavior, and his permanent followers of the policy of deceiving those around him and their illusions that he is the neediest person at all. We have seen in the miser’s character in the Aulularia of Plautus that everyone around him suffered from his miserliness, even his servant herself. In spite of possessing a jar of gold, perhaps if, he exploited it for the livelihood of the kings. However, the stinginess stands between a person and his dignity, humanity, and his sense of those who live with him. His life, then, turns into daily situations that raise laughter and ridicule in the heart and mind of everyone who knows his truth, and turns into suffering for everyone who lives with him and does not realize his ugly truth.
  • "Hecuba Euripides”. Transformations in the Behavior of Dramatic Personality”,

    KHALIL, MOHAMED; Department Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; General Education; 0; KHALIL, MOHAMED (Department of Greek and Latin Studies - Cairo University, 2017-03-16)
    "هيكابى يوريبيديس. تحولات في سلوك الشخصية الدرامية" محمد خليل رشدي مدرس اللغة اللاتينية وآدابها كلية الآداب- جامعة أسيوط لماذا كل هذا العويل والنحيب من أجل طروادة! لماذا لا يكون مقبول أن تسقط طروادة، ويسقط معها من كان يحكمها! لفد قبلت الأسرة المالكة أن تحتضن بينها هيلينى الزوجة الخائنة، بل إن برياموس ملك طروادة قَبِل أن يحارب ملوك الإغريق مجتمعين. أما شعب طروادة فقد استجاب لنداء الخيانة وخضع لإرادة الخيانة والفساد. من هنا يصبح سقوط طروادة أمرا حتميا، لكنه لن يكون طبيعيا. ونحن نعنى بذلك أن طروادة يجب أن تُدمر عن بكرة أبيها. سوف يتم قتل أو إعدام كل من ينتمي إلى الأسرة الحاكمة. أما شعب طروادة فلابد أن يتم إبادته، وهذا أمرا طبيعيا ومن لا يجده كذلك فعليه أن يُحكِّم عقله لا مشاعره. إن ما يتبقى لنا بعد سقوط طروادة هو أن نقف على أطلالها ونحاول جاهدين أن نتبين ملامح مَن بقي مِن الأسرى على قيد الحياة، وعلينا أيضا أن نتبين ملامح تلك الوجوه التي تعلوها ابتسامة المنتصر. هنا وعلى أنقاض طروادة ترقد الملكة هيكابى، زوجة برياموس ملك طروادة الذي كان قد قُتِل من قبل. إن هيكابى ترقد بين من تبقي من نساء طروادة وهي تجهل مصيرها ومصير من تبقى من أبنائها. فهي لم تعد ملكة، بل لم يعد هناك مملكة تحكمها. لقد سقطت طروادة وبدأت محاكمة من بقي من أسرة من كان يحكمها. من هنا يبدأ يوريبيديس مسرحيته التي تحمل اسم هيكابى. ومن هنا يبدأ بحثنا الذي سنحاول فيه أن نناقش النقاط التالية: -1- ما الذي أراده يوريبيديس من كتابة مسرحية هيكابى ورسمه لشخوصها بملامح معينة كما أراد لها أن تبدو؟ -2- كيف يمكن لنا أن نحلل شخصية هيكابى وتحولها المفاجئ من صورة الضحية إلى صورة الشخصية الساعية للانتقام؟ -3- ما هو المغزى من النبوءة في المسرحية، وما هو الدور الذي تلعبه في مجريات الأحداث؟ -4- ماذا يمثل عنصر المفاجأة في مسرحية هيكابى؟
  • The Effects of Peer Coaching on Faculty Development in the Context of Higher Education

    Kaj-Itani, Khadija; No Collaboration; NA; NA; NA; General Education; NA; Kaj-Itani, Khadija (University of Bahrain Scientific Journals, 2015-07-01)
    Faculty development has been one of the major concerns for many educational institutions and organizations across the world. Peer coaching, among others, has been identified as an effective strategy just for that. For instance, Ohio Department of Education has collaborated with the Center for Essential School Reform to engage in intensive teacher development. The present study reports on an investigation into the use of peer coaching for staff development in Sharjah University, one of the leading universities in the Arabian Gulf. Certain qualitative instruments were constructed such as interviews and subjective questionnaires to collect data on the effects of using peer coaching in this University, while quantitative considerations were resorted to in the analysis so as to compliment the findings statistically. The questionnaire was administered in both Arabic and English to participants from different academic departments. It was based on five constructs, namely 1) the helpfulness of the coaching process for the observers, the observerees, 2) the observerees‟ feelings about the possible perpetuation of the coaching program 3)faculty‟s feedback 4) attitudes, and 5) recommendations regarding the process. Five of the respondents who had completed the questionnaire were also involved in semi-structured interviews. The management claimed that peer coaching would contribute to the development of the teachers and thereby enhance their students‟ learning skills. However, the data collected from open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews revealed that the use of peer coaching in the University had limited effects. Analysis of these data depending on certain categories uncovered the reasons for this limitation. This study concludes with recommendations, which could lead to the desired outcomes of peer coaching and consequently enhance student achievement.
  • Understanding the Monotheistic World View of Islam

    Khalid, Mohammad; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; General Education; 0; Junaid, Nadvi (Markaz Talim-o-Tahqiq, 2021-09-30)
    A worldview is generally understood as a precise philosophy of life; origin of the world; and a set of beliefs about fundamental aspects of Reality that establish and influence all our comprehensions, rational, and endeavors. This article attempts to present an understanding of the monotheistic world view of Islam, in the light of Qur’ān and Ḥadῑth, which differ from the other world views. Section 1, provides an introduction to the terms: Monotheism and World-View, used in philosophy and other branches of social sciences, from the historical perspective. Section 2, explains the term Monotheism. Section 3, explains World-Views. Section 4, discusses the relation of Philosophy and World View. Section 5, provides definition & nature of World-View. Section 6, presents the Islamic World View OR the Monotheistic World View of Islam. Section 7, highlights the doctrines of Islamic World View. Section 8, presents the Conclusion.
  • INTERFAITH OUTREACH OF THE MUSLIM WORLD LEAGUE: TRENDS, CAUSES, AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    Khalid, Mohammad; Husain, Mohammad Khalid; No Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; General Education; 0; Khalid, Mohammad (Center for Study of Religions and Religious Tolerance, 2022-07-14)
    The Muslim World League is a nominally non-governmental Islamic organisation based in Saudi Arabia. From its founding in 1962 until relatively recently, it mainly focused on promulgating the archetypal Islamic fundamentals and practices across the Muslim world in line with the vision of the Saudi state. An early indicator that this mission was giving way to a more dynamic and, relatively, liberal position was an interfaith initiative by the league in 2008 that resulted in the Makkah Appeal; a landmark document that advocated, and set appropriate terms for, Islamic initiatives in interfaith dialogue. The league’s new interfaith programme was then introduced to the world ten days later when it convened the Madrid Conference, bringing together prominent figures from all major faith traditions. But it was not until 2016 / 2017 with the coming to office of its present secretary-general, Dr. Al-Issa, and the Saudi Crown Prince Muhammad bin Salman, that the league radically expanded and diversified its interfaith dialogue initiatives. This article examines a mixed sample of these initiatives to give a sense of how the league’s interfaith programme has evolved in recent years. It then gives an analysis of the factors likely to be driving these changes, the aims they seem oriented to achieve, and what directions they might take in future. Special attention is paid to the league’s function and significance within the larger discourse of Saudi international relations and diplomatic interests on the world stage.
  • Understanding the Cohesion and Stability Issues of Pakistan: Appraisal & Solution

    Khalid, Mohammad; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; General Education; 0; Nadvi, Junaid (Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology, 2022)
    The Islamic Republic of Pakistan is becoming important in the international safety calculus. Cohesion and stability issues in Pakistan are a matter of concern and debate in academic and non-academic circles, on national and international forums. This article presents an appraisal with recommendations for a practical solution, in the light of religious, social, economic, and political feelings of its citizens. A different viewpoint on the cohesion and stability issues of Pakistan is being propagated in national and international media. The article does not criticize the opinions of others, but on the contrary, conceives a secure outlook for Pakistan. It conveys Qur’ān and Sunnah as two key resources synchronized with certain supplementary texts. The article claims that the pessimistic view about Pakistan can be improved by the elimination of internal chaos and resentments in the lifespan of its public; by the removal of difficulties, and insecurities, triggered by the warfare of terror, fear and distresses. The article claims that Pakistan was established on the tenets of Islamic Ideology. Therefore, the only feasible way to triumph over this alarming situation rests in the observance of those modest fundamentals, for which this land was envisioned and achieved by the Indian Muslims of the sub-continent.
  • JAHILIYYAH RHETORIC AS A DIVINE LEGITIMACY FOR VIOLENCE: A STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF SAYYID QUTB AND THE CONTEMPORARY ISLAMIST ORTHODOXY ONAL-QAEDA, THE TALIBAN, AND THE ISLAMIC STATE

    Khalid, Mohammad; No Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; General Education; 0; Khalid, Mohammad (Center for Study of Religions and Religious Tolerance, 2023)
    The Islamic conception of Jahiliyyah brings together the three most debated Muslim militant organizations of our times, namely Al-Qaeda, the Islamic State, and the Taliban in terms of their justification for violence. It is discussed here that despite significant differences in their political agendas, social and cultural motives as well as religious denominational affiliations, the three organizations are hegemonic in their resort to the notion of Jahiliyyah while opposing the non-Shari’ah based political rule. They converge on the idea that there is an imperative to install a system based on Shari’ah and that any actors opposed to this can be treated as enemies, deviants, and infidels, hence, worthy of violent aggression. It is demonstrated here that this particular connotation of Jahiliyyah was essentially espoused in the works of Sayyid Qutb, one of the most influential twentieth century proponents of Islamism and global Jihad. Although developed primarily to denounce Western imperialists in a postcolonial context, one may see Jahiliyyah as a contemporary Islamic rhetoric for providing the three organizations in question, valid pretexts to wage armed insurgencies against whoever they view as hostile political forces. This overall narrative, as this study indicates, relates to the broader contemporary Islamist discourse on the legitimacy of political violence in the name of religion.
  • A Literary Critical Discourse on Quranic History in Seventh-Century Arabia

    Husain, Mohammad Khalid; External Collaboration; E-Arabaization Unit; 0; 0; General Education; 0; Elimam, Ahmed (University of Malaya, 2018-12-20)
    The Qur’an is the holy scripture of Islam. For Muslims, the Qur’an is the literal word of Allah revealed via the angel Gabriel to the last Prophet Muhammad who relayed the revelation, verbatim, to his followers. As one of the essential beliefs of Muslims, the Qur’an is inimitable in its composition and argue that, just as the earlier prophets of Allah were given the power to perform certain miracles to prove to their respective followers that they were genuine prophets, the Qur’an is the proof of Muhammad’s prophethood. Muslim scholars argue that the Arabs, whose literary tradition had reached its zenith just before the time of the revelation of the Qur’an, were fascinated by its style. Many of Prophet’s contemporaries acknowledged the Qur’an as a non-human or divine composition on hearing the recitation of some of its passages. This article sets out first of all to explore the Arabic literary tradition around the time of the revelation of the Qur’an, since it is against this background that their evaluation of the composition of the Qur’an may be understood and, secondly, to examine the relevant Islamic literature on the response of the Arabs to the Qur’an and finally shed some light on the inimitable style of the Qur’an.
  • Smart Cities and Households’ Recyclable Waste Management: The Case of Jeddah

    Saeedi, Kawther; Visvizi, Anna; Alahmadi, D.; Babour, A.; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; Supply Chain Management; 0; et al. (MDPI, 2023-04-17)
    Over the past 30 years, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has recorded rapid economic growth and development rates matched by corresponding levels of consumption. This has led to an exponential increase in the volume of municipal solid waste. Even if the bulk share of this waste is recyclable, the propensity of households to engage in the recycling of waste has so far produced a negligible effect. Arguably, in the context of the pervasive digitalization of public and private spaces, accompanied by the developments in information and communication technology (ICT), best conceptualized by reference to the concepts of smart cities and circular economy, it is natural to expect ICT and policy objectives to converge in order to encourage and enable greater engagement with waste segregation and recycling amongst households. Against this backdrop, this paper explores the feasibility and ways of increasing households’ participation in recyclable waste collection, segregation, and disposal in a context devoid of a top-down city-level waste management policy. To this end, the design thinking approach was employed to identify factors inhibiting/facilitating households’ engaging in recycling. A variety of ideation techniques were adopted in subsequent stages of the design thinking process, including interviews with stakeholders from the government and industry sectors, surveys with Jeddah households (N = 446), an eight week-long recyclable waste collection experiment, and feedback surveys (N = 46). The results suggest that applying relatively simple and resource-savvy tools aimed at promoting household recyclable waste collection has substantial potential. This, in turn, not only feeds into the debate on smart cities but also into the research of public policy.

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