Recent Submissions

  • Design guidelines to Improve the Air Quality in Hot Climate Open Spaces - Jeddah city as a case study

    Mohamed, Mady; Mohdher, Lujain; Urben Design Lab; Master of Science in Urban Design; Mohamed, Mady
    Air Pollution has become a global concern that is harming human life, and it is increasing as societies are developing. Air pollution has become the reason respiratory and cardiovascular diseases lead to death. In this research, the air quality in the urban open spaces of Jeddah city will be studied know about the quality of air in hot climate open spaces. In a hot climate, the air propagates more, and there are chances it can cause more health problems. In this scenario, the air quality should be at a satisfactory level. So, in this study, first, the air quality and the factors affecting the air quality will be determined, which will further lead to the statistical analysis to find out the significant factor that is affecting the air quality. Ultimately, this will help us to prepare a set of guidelines to enhance the air quality of the open spaces of Jeddah.
  • Heritage Tourism Management Approaches

    Kashef, Mohamad; Balkhy, Duaa; Graduate Studies and Research (2021)
    This research examines different management approaches to heritage tourism, the top-down, value-based and integrated approach. It analyzes the positive and negative aspects of the different management approaches and critically compares their impact on heritage tourism developments within a global context. The study underlines six critical strategies that potentially contribute to creating an effective heritage management approach. These encompass heritage interpretation, balance between tourism and heritage, satisfaction of tourists, community involvement, community improvement, and heritage protection and conservation. The primary case study of this research is AlUla in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with an emphasis on the management and decision-making process that affect heritage tourism developments and the local community. Key members of the Royal Commission of AlUla as well as significant members of the community are interviewed to develop in-depth understanding of the heritage management approach in the region. In addition to the interviews, tourist surveys were developed to collect the needed data of heritage tourist experience. The research aims to contextualize the local approach within a broader understanding of heritage management approaches worldwide. It ultimately aims to highlight the best practices that contribute to the success of heritage and cultural tourism with an eye on promoting community collaboration and sustaining the balance between tourism and heritage conservation
  • Building / Street Interface : Impact on A Pedestrian Activity

    Kashef, Mohamad; Graduate Studies and Research (2020)
    Streets in urban areas are commonly defined by building façades, which more or less contribute to the character and vitality of City Streets. This research examines the building interface with street space and its impact on pedestrian activity. Building interface with streets affect pedestrian activity and opportunities for public social interaction. Large-scale buildings that occupy entire city blocks with few openings and/or access points reduce street level activity and diminish the economic/social role of streets. Rich building interfaces that incorporate mix of uses, openings and interactive functional relationship with the street enhance urban vitality and walkability in cities. The research adopts the case study as the primary method for understanding, examining and collecting meaningful data, which enriches our current understanding of the impact of building interface with city streets. The study also examines representative case study from the city of Jeddah : Palestine street to identify the building interface design elements that generate rich pedestrian activity on the street level. The research conclude with examines two segments of Palestine street and identify the poor and rich building interface with scoring table for each segment .
  • Model for enhancing Saudi Cities' resiliency

    fekry, Mohammed; Ragab, Tarek; Aida, Nayer; Jamjoom, Hatoon Z.; Graduate Studies and Research
    Urban resilience has come to play a central role in the new urban policy agenda, as well as in the academic literature on cities, urbanization, and links with disasters and climate change. Moreover, the emphasis on the participatory and communicative side of planning has grown in the past decade, and planners have developed various theories to empower communities and increase communication. However, to accomplish highly effective public participation programs that enhance cities' resiliency, a very good job of planning must be done. The real challenge is to design an appropriate program where the techniques match the purpose, reach the interested stakeholders, and result in a clear linkage between public participation and urban resilience. The goal of this study is to introduce a public participation tool that helps in expanding the Resilient capacity of the Saudi cities. This study used the concluded results from the previous theoretical and practical work as a reference to create a strong theoretical background discussing several aspects of the subject. Additionally, a conceptual proposal was designed relying on the research data analyses followed by the implementation phase of the proposal. Finally, the achieved results had been considered as the final project to improve the cities resiliency through public participation
  • Placemaking in spiritual sites for successful religious tourism

    Mohammed, Mohammed F. M.; Wael, AlHalabi; Al-Ghaleb, Saddiga; Al-Nafie, Majd Fahad; Graduate Studies and Research
    Placemaking is considered an action that intends to shape open spaces and create a better image for a place. This study aims to enrich the spiritual experience in sacred sites and confirm the relationship between spiritual place, place attachment and spiritual identity. This is done through analyzing the tool of placemaking in the case of Al-Masjid al Haram in Makkah targeting the overall development of the religious tourism sector. To achieve this purpose, A framework is presented relaying on analytical approach to define urban sacred sites, placemaking, urban environmental psychology, and religious tourism suggesting that the surrounding urban environment affects people’s sense of spirituality in religious sites. Concluding the research with a model to improve the level of spirituality and therefor religious tourism in Al-Masjid al Haram
  • Temporary urbanism as an approach for public spaces revitalization

    Ragab, Tarek; Nayer, Aida; Graduate Studies and Research (2020)
    Public spaces are the core of cities, especially neighborhoods public spaces. They reflect quality of life, the degree of social interaction, and economic prosperity. Cities encourage many urban development projects that focus on public spaces revival and quality upgrades. However, most of these projects have a fixed and static approach and require an extended time to be carried into reality; starting with; the design process, community consent, regulatory approvals, and securing funds, and so on. Also upon investigating the local context of Saudi Arabia, the public spaces in city of Jeddah are not fully utilized to their full potential and lack social interaction. This indicate that the overall process and situation does not cope with the changing nature of communities, therefore, the "temporary urbanism" approach allows for the dynamic use of public spaces by incorporating the element of time. Temporary urbanism is deemed a contemporary, flexible and viable approach to urban development that helps revitalize public spaces. The research examines "public events" as a tool to enhance the users’ experience, to increase the success and revive public spaces. The main objective is to set a framework for the employment of the occasional events at the level of neighborhood public spaces. The study explores the literature and case studies to develop the framework building process. In addition to investigate and develop the criteria and tools for selecting and managing the events in neighborhoods in the context of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The framework aims to help stakeholders and decision-makers take the necessary actions to revive the cities’ sluggish public spaces. This is aligned with enhancing the quality of life in the city as designated in the Kingdom's 2030 vision locally and achieving the United Nations' sustainable development goals globally.
  • Investigating the relationship between neighborhood urban design and sick neighborhood syndrome

    Mohamed, Mady; Alwaer, Husam; Elessawi, Widad; Graduate Studies and Research (2020)
    The neighborhood has become the focus of attraction of urban planners, designers, and architects. Over the last two decades, the field of study of the neighborhood and its relationship with health has witnessed an explosion of interest. Several researchers investigated neighborhood problems and its impacts on well-being. Different urban problems vary in mental and physical health impacts. Lots of cross-sectional researches linked the characteristics of neighborhood whether physical or social to the health condition of the community. Furthermore, heart disease, skin disorder, cancer diabetes, depression, and drug use are some of the health problems that an individual might face while living in an insufficient neighborhood particularly in harsh climate conditions. In a desert climate, thermal bad performance can lead to urban problems such as the well-known phenomenon "Urban Heat Island (UHI)". The later can lead to several illness syndromes for residents. Reviewing the literature revealed a gap in the knowledge of the detailed relationship between urban design elements and sick health syndrome. The thesis aims to build a framework of the neighborhood design elements and its interconnection with illness syndromes. Similar to the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS), the paper introduces a new term which is “Sick Neighborhood Syndrome” (SNS). This research follows the scientific approach with multi- research methods. The study follows three steps. These are: analytical literature review, record fact from the field, and numerical analysis. The analytical literature review is done to collect data and information to build a framework about neighborhood urban design and its relationship with sick neighborhood syndrome. A selected district from Jeddah is investigated and analyzed through recording facts from the field. Observation and survey are the main tools of the field study. Furthermore, the numerical analysis is the last step that employees different software, these are Space—syntax, and Envi-met. This aids the research to reach its final results and to validate the relationship between neighborhood design elements and sick syndromes. The research includes five main chapters (Table1-1). Chapter one introduces the entire thesis. Chapter two and three review and analyze the literature to achieve the second objective of the thesis “build a theoretical framework of neighborhood elements and sick neighborhood syndrome”. Chapter four focuses on the field study and the numerical analysis. Chapter five summarize the results and set some recommendations for government design makers and urban designers. V Al-shati district in Jeddah was selected for the field study. The research relies on subjective assessment and the numerical analysis to analyze the case study. Space-syntax and En-vimet are employed for the analysis. Space-syntax examines the accessibility, connectivity, and walkability in the neighborhood, while Envi-met examines the environmental features. Two clusters in Al- shati district are examined to compare and investigate the effect of the built environment on neighborhood performance. The survey results confirmed the analysis results of numerical analysis. Also, it explores the life habits and health of the residents and its relation to the thermal and built environment. Two forms of survey were used, one for experts and another one for the neighborhood residents
  • Toward enhancing Jeddah city image

    fekry, Mohammed; Badawi, Samaa; Bardeesi, Bahiah Mohammed Wajdi; Graduate Studies and Research (2019)
    Streets are one of the important parts of the city’s public realm where they represent most of the cities outdoor. In the urban design literature, most of the urbanists had agreed that maintaining a good street quality is associated with positive city image and better standards of living. Throughout the history, commercial streets are considered as one of the dominant types of urban streets, where they represent the city’s vibrant axis and play a significant role in manifesting the image of the city. With the implication of the rapid growth that Jeddah had faced, this had brought many accumulated issues regarding the design of the public realm and commercial streets. This had contributed to the shortage of adequate ordinance to regulate the visual appearance and functionality of Jeddah’s commercial streets. This had created a visually overloaded and uncomfortable street environment that is associated with negative impacts on the citizen's wellbeing. Therefore, this research aimed to create an assessment tool to investigate the user’s perception in the commercial streets of Jeddah. The main goal of this research is to conclude with recommendations to enhance the image and the visual quality of Jeddah’s commercial streets to improve the city image and the societies wellbeing. In order to design the research assessment tool, the research follows a qualitative scientific methodology by reviewing the theoretical literature about the research scope and analyzing international and regional case studies of street enhancement tools. To validate the assessment tool, the research will employ a structural survey for the experts. Also, the research will conduct a case study in Heraa street in Jeddah to investigate the problem by employing user survey and site observation. Further, a set of recommendation was proposed to uplift the visual quality and the public image of Jeddah’s commercial streets. That will help to maintain a positive city image and will foster the self-esteem and sense of belonging of Jeddah’s citizens
  • Place identity in Urban places in Jeddah

    Noraini B. Yusof; Refaat, Ahmad; Beydoum, Al-Johara Nour; Graduate Studies and Research (2016)
    This paper focuses on place identity and its significance in ensuring continuity and attachment between man and place, which fosters and maintains the psychological well-being of individuals. In today's globalized world, place identity is at risk due to the dramatic social, economic, and physical changes that affected the urban settings of Jeddah. Thus resulting in a negative impact on the socio-cultural aspect as well as its bearing on the urban fabric, visual image and architectural identity. This paper identifies the issues concerning place identity through exploring the concept of place and its theories in Literature. Furthermore, it investigates the relationship between the three main components of place identity: physical settings, activities, and meaning and their attributes, through the use of qualitative methods. A questionnaire survey and interviews were conducted to examine place experience and to identify the characteristics of the places that influenced and would then benefit in terms of development of place identity which in turn contribute to securing a sense of place.
  • Auqmented reality (AR) as a tool for evoking Urban memory of Jeddah historic Site

    Ragab, Tarek; Samir, Haitham; Refae, Sema G.; Graduate Studies and Research (2018)
    Old Saudi cities have undergone dramatic changes over the last seventy years after the boom in the oil industry and urban developments. However, these transformations led to the neglect of the old urban fabric by destroying the traditional spatial organization, historic buildings, and city walls in different old Saudi cities. Consequently, many historical elements changed, and the traditions, lifestyle, spirit, and identity of the historical city disappeared, leaving the city without connections to the past or associated urban memory. The main goal of this research is to explore the potential application of augmented reality (AR) and test its validity and acceptance among visitors as a digital tool to evoke the physical urban memory and the disappearing urban heritage. Also, raise the cultural heritage awareness of visitors and tourists by promoting urban heritage sites and historical buildings. The research relies on the process of the scientific research methodology carried through multiple research methods — first, the analytical review of the historical background of using technology in cultural heritage domain and its interrelation with heritage interpretation. Second, the analysis of international case studies that utilized AR in historical and touristic sites; and finally, the augmented reality experiment simulation method through the application of AR in the historical district of Jeddah through old photographs and 3D modeling documentation. The AR mobile application going to be used by local visitors and tourists so that they could experience the AR simulation. Accordingly, the research anticipated a higher level of acceptance from the users of the AR tool and its utilization as a solution for documenting, recording, and managing heritage sites and improving their experience or ambiance.
  • Investingating the effect of Urban from on heat Island Phenomena

    Mohamed, Mady; Ragab, Tarek; Aburuzaiza, Amani Ahmad; Graduate Studies and Research (2017)
    This study is to debate urban forms embraces urban heat island adaptation and mitigation actions. It also aims to investigate the effect of urban design impacts, to develop strategies for reducing urban heat island influences with a good preparation for climate change adaptation, and to contribute in improving quality of urban life. In order to achieve the objectives of this research, the scientific methodology was used due to its suitability to the nature of the research. Which depends mainly on three stages; 1) record facts from the field, 2) build a preliminary theory from the literature review, and 3) experimental situations. Several approaches have been used: data collection, literature review, preparation through data bases, probability analysis using SPSS program, and Space Syntax analysis. The research investigates two districts in Jeddah which are Al-Balad and Al- Basateen. The results show differences in temperature between the two districts at the same time schedule. The factors impacting this urban heat island's result were attributed to different urban fabric between the two districts. The research recommends decreasing urban heat island by using robust structures, increasing the use of plants in design, and implementing an effective urban design. Design Strategy Properties of urban materials, particularly, solar, reflectance ,thermal emissivity and heat capacity ,also influence the development of urban heat island as they determine how the suns energy is reflected, emitted, and absorbed. The contribution of this thesis is the formulation of asset of strategies and principles that can help directing designers to transform these defunct downtowns into sustainable urban cores for people to live, work, play and visit.
  • Evaluating Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Hot Humid Climate : Case Study od Effat University Campus

    Mohamed, Mady; Shawesh, Rawan; Graduate Studies and Research (2019)
    This thesis is concerned with investigating the influence of shading on the outdoor thermal comfort in the hot humid city of Jeddah. Shading is considered one of the mitigation techniques that can deal with the negative thermal environment. It is a solution to a problem that continues to grow. The problem began when the cities of Saudi Arabia including the city of Jeddah transformed from organic and pedestrian oriented cities to grid and car-oriented cities. This change negatively altered the thermal environment of the open spaces and influenced their usage significantly. This issue coupled with the continuous rise in temperature and the heat island effect insinuate the desperate need for climatic design interventions where shading is considered one of the most effective methods. Therefore, this research focused on investigating the influence of shading in enhancing the thermal environment and its level of effectivity. Different studies were undertaken to achieve the aim of this study including a theoretical study and a field study. The results proved the extreme significance of shading in this region as they make the open space functional as opposed to areas exposed to the sun. Furthermore, the study revealed the appropriate tools to measure the mean radiant temperature as well as the most suitable index to assess the outdoor thermal comfort in Jeddah and its need for adjustment.
  • Proposal for Saudi green city guidelines

    Mohamed, Mady; Al-Surf, Muhammad; Al-Kesmi, Sanaa A.; Graduate Studies and Research (2018)
    Contemporary cities continue to face major environmental challenges, due to constant rapid urbanization. Furthermore, the governments of global cities are taking into consideration the green city approach and, converting their cities’ weaknesses into opportunities. As the 2030 Saudi vision continue to support the concepts of smart growth with a vision of fostering economic growth and development whilst, ensuring that natural assets continue to provide the resources and environmental services that strengthen the country’s foundation, by reviewing the principles of green cities and measuring sustainability key performance indicators. This thesis investigates several sustainable systems in order to develop the most applicable green system for the Saudi context. The investigation analyzed various criteria with more focus on cultural, regional climate, development scale, total knowledge, indicator dimensions, and financial access. Further to this investigation, the researcher developed a comparative study between the STAR community rating system, peril community rating system of Estidama, and Indian green building council which are the three highest ranked systems to reach compatible system with the Saudi context. Furthermore, the proposed green system is validated through triangulation method that include selected experts and professionals in interviews and questionnaires. In addition, analysis for sustainable city like the context of Jeddah. The findings of this research will analyze the potential of Jeddah city to be developed into a green city through setting guidelines to achieve successful green development.
  • Sustainable socio-cultural guidelines for neighborhood design in Jeddah

    Mohamed, Mady; Al-Khateeb, Samah; Fatani, Khadijah A.; Graduate Studies and Research (2016)
    The population growth and the urban neighborhood development in the cities around the world are inevitable. Today, many neighborhoods around the world are suffering from several problems. These problems affected the culture, social interaction, economic aspects as well as environmental impacts. Accordingly, urban development should address social and cultural aspects of each particular community within the environmental and economical context. The current research aims at developing a set of design guidelines that promotes the concept of socially sustainable neighborhoods in Saudi Arabia. Nowadays, several rating systems and urban design codes around the world set guidelines for urban design development and particularly in neighborhood design. LEED (Leadership of Environment and Energy design) for neighborhood design, and QSAS (Qatar Sustainability Assessment System); are examples of these rating system. The research problem is; these rating systems cannot be applied in the context of Saudi Arabia without considering its local social and cultural aspects. The research resulted as a reaction to the abbreviation of socio- cultural aspects in neighborhood design approaches. The research is depending on an analytical review of different neighborhood design approaches and case studies. Also, subjective data is being collected from experts and professionals about their points of view and their recommendations regarding neighborhood design for Jeddah city. The result of the research is a set of design v guidelines that consists of design principles adjusted to fit the context of Saudi Arabia (Jeddah City). The formulated guidelines are adapted and tested in an evaluation application of two residential neighborhoods in Jeddah city. This application validated the proposed design guidelines. Considering the proposed design guidelines; in the design process of Jeddah's neighborhoods, will promote a leading approach to the concept of socially sustainable neighborhoods in the kingdom.
  • Deriving urban design principles for Jeddah Corniche developments

    Ragab, Tarek; Shokry, Mohammed; Oudah, Reem Fuad; Graduate Studies and Research (2017)
    Many recreational waterfront developments are only superficially pleasant as they lack significant design qualities needed by users. Notions on waterfront qualities create communication gaps between a designer vision and end-user perception. Designers might formulate objectives and ideas on waterfront qualities without adequately understanding the true needs and preferences of users, which encompass aspects deeper than merely visual features. This correlation study evaluates the design quality of the recent development of Jeddah north Corniche. It aims to analyze the relationship between physical patterns and users activity patterns, which will assert in understanding how seafronts physical pattern produces different social interactions; and how these activity– physical pattern relationships make this public realm work or not. The study attempts to answer critical questions: 1) How do user's activities relate to the physical pattern of a seafront public space? 2) How are user's activities affected and encouraged by seafronts physical features? In order to answer these questions, this research employs a methodology that combines direct field observation and behavioral mapping, questionnaires, and focus group interviews to interpret the activity patterns that appear to be correlated with particular use of design features. Analyzing this relationship will conclude seafront socio-physical design principles which take into account users preferences and the unique characteristics of Jeddah location and its Islamic culture, and encourage excellence in the design quality of urban waterfronts; focusing on creating prosperous, sustainable and livable social environments. Also, it will add insights and complement the application of urban design theories and practices which could lead to further studies aiming to improve recreational seafronts design quality.