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  • Validation of the Arabic version of the resilience scale for adolescents (READ)

    Chaaya, Roni; Obeid, Sahar; Postigo, Alvaro; Dagher, Dina; Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; et al. (2023-10-02)
    Introduction: Adolescents react differently to challenging negative life events. Resilience, a dynamic characteristic of individuals, was studied to be a protective factor against such events. In order to study the resilience among Arabic-speaking adolescent populations, age-appropriate measures that are fully apprehended by younger respondents are needed. In this context, the present study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) in a community sample of native Arabic-speaking adolescents aged 13-18 years. Methods: A sample of 546 community Arabic-speaking adolescents from Lebanon was recruited (n = 328 females, with a mean age of 15.76 ± 1.65 years). Through an online questionnaire, participants were requested to complete the READ, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-8) and the 13-item Children's Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-13). Results: Following the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA-to-CFA) strategy, a unidimensional model of the Arabic version of the READ was met after 10 items were removed from the scale, and showed strong internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.943). Additionally, the one-factor solution of the Arabic version of the READ was identical across male and female adolescents at the three levels of invariance (Configural, Metric and Scalar). Finally, higher resilience scores were significantly correlated with lower levels of psychopathology, namely depression, anxiety, stress and PTSD, thus attesting to the concurrent validity of the Arabic READ. Conclusion: Findings lend support to the psychometric reliability and validity of the Arabic version of the READ, and therefore its suitability for use among Arabic-speaking adolescents. The availability of this tool facilitates the implementation of interventions that foster resilience, especially in adolescents who have faced a number of negative life events.
  • A cross-national perspective of prejudice-based cyberbullying: An empirical study across 17 countries

    Amin, Rizwana; M Dinić, Bojana; Bodroža, Bojana; et, al; Psychology (2024)
  • Illegitimate Police task Stress Questionnaire: Development & Psychometric Evaluation

    Amin, Rizwana; Ismail, Rozmi; Badayai, Abdul Rehman; Khizar, Umbreen; External Collaboration; Positive Psychology & Wellbeing Lab; 0; 0; Psychology; 0; et al. (2024)
  • Conceptualization of Social Capital in Mental Health Context among Adolescents and Adults

    Amin, Rizwana; Shamsher, Sabeen; Khawar, Prof. Dr. Rabia; External Collaboration; Positive Psychology & Wellbeing Lab; 0; 0; Psychology; 0; Khawar, Rabia (2024)
  • Exploring Attitudes Toward “Sugar Relationships” Across 87 Countries: A Global Perspective on Exchanges of Resources for Sex and Companionship

    Amin, Rizwana; Kowal, Marta; Ressearch, Consortium; External Collaboration; Positive Psychology & Wellbeing Lab; 0; 0; Psychology; 0; Mesko, Norbert (SpringerLink, 2024)
  • Gender and geographical distribution of editorial board members of three leading suicide journals

    Amin, Ri; Kar, Sujita Kumar; External Collaboration; Positive Psychology & Wellbeing Lab; 0; 0; Psychology; 0; Arafat, Yasir (Hogrefe Publishing, 2024)
  • Development and preliminary validation of the Postpartum Psychotic Experiences Scale (PPES)

    Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; El Hadathy, Diane; Gonzalez-Nuevo, Covadonga; Malaeb, Diana; Barakat, Habib; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; et al. (2023-11-01)
    Despite the emerging research interest in postpartum psychotic experiences, there is still a lack of measures for specifically measuring this construct. The contribution of this paper is to design and validate a novel self-report measure, the Postpartum Psychotic Experiences Scale (PPES), to screen for attenuated psychotic symptoms during postpartum. This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2022 until June 2023, enrolling 438 women 4-6 weeks after delivery. Starting from an initial pool of 22 items, both Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis suggested that remaining 15 items loaded on one factor (α = 0.95). The PPES showed good convergent validity with the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief scale (correlations >0.8) and good concurrent validity with postpartum depression and anxiety scales. A PPSE score of 8.5 (sensitivity=85.2%, specificity=78.6%) was defined as the optimal cutoff point. At this cutoff, 47% of participating women were considered at possible risk for postpartum psychosis. This study provides, for the first time, a specific self-report measure to assess postpartum PEs reliably and validly. We hope that the PPES will facilitate routine screening for PEs after childbirth among women who are predisposed to developing postpartum psychosis.
  • Editorial: Psychotic experiences and symptoms in adolescents and young adults from different countries and cultural backgrounds

    Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; Psychology; 0; Fekih-Romdhane, Feten (2023-09-04)
  • Cross-Country Validation of the Arabic Version of the Prodromal Questionnaire–Brief (PQ‐B) in Young Adults from the General Population of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region

    Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; jahrami, Haitham; Alhuwailah, Amthal; Fawaz, Mirna; Obeid, Sahar; Cheour, Majda; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; et al. (2023-04-13)
    The concept of early intervention in psychosis is still novel and evolving in some Arab countries, while completely non-existent in most of the other countries. What further complicates the introduction of this concept in the Arab world is the lack of easy-to-use and low-cost Arabic language screening tools. We aimed through the present study to perform a cross-country validation of the Prodromal Questionnaire–Brief (PQ‐B) into the Arabic language. We conducted a cross-sectional cross-national analysis based on 3247 respondents from six countries (i.e., Tunisia, Lebanon, Kuwait, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco). All participants answered the Arabic PQ-B and a set of measures used to determine the discriminant validity of the scale (psychological distress and suicidal ideation). Within this study, we also analyzed the factorial structure of the scale and its reliability. We found that 54.2% of participants screened positive for prodromal symptoms, with variations across countries ranging from 47.7% in Lebanon to 62.0% in Egypt. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that fit of the one-factor model of PQ-B items was very good (CFI = .92; TLI = .91; RMSEA = .075 [90% CI .073–.077]. The Cronbach’s alpha values were > .90 for the total sample, in all six countries and in both genders. Findings also showed that the Arabic PQ-B is invariant across gender groups at the metric, configural, and scalar levels. Between-gender comparisons revealed no significant differences between males and females regarding PQ-B scores. Higher PQ-B scores correlated significantly but weakly with higher levels of psychological distress and more suicidal ideation. Findings provide evidence of excellent reliability and discriminant validity of the one-factor structure of the PQ-B in its Arabic version. The Arabic PQ-B appears thus promising as a screening tool to detect prodromal psychosis symptoms in Arabic speaking communities.
  • Validation of the Arabic Version of the Psychotic-Like Experiences Questionnaire for Children (PLEQ-C) in a Community Sample of Children and Adolescents Aged 12–18 years

    Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Malaeb, Diana; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Rabih; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; Psychology; et al. (2023-08-21)
    No epidemiological prevalence data regarding psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in children and adolescents are yet available for Arab countries. Providing age-appropriate questionnaires that are fully apprehended by younger participants can facilitate discussions on prodromal psychosis in both community and clinical settings. To address this gap and help foster future research on PLEs in these unstudied age groups, we sought to examine the psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the Psychotic-Like Experiences Questionnaire for Children (PLEQ-C) in a community sample of children and adolescents aged 12–18 years from Lebanon. A total of 546 native Arabic-speaking Lebanese children and adolescents were enrolled in this study with a mean age of 15.90 years (SD = 1.73) and 56.5% females. The forward–backward translation method was used for the translation and adaptation of the PLEQ-C into the Arabic language. The Arabic PLEQ‐C showed good internal consistency, as revealed by McDonald’s ω and Cronbach’s α coefficients of .85. Analyses indicated that all nine items of the PLEQ-C fall onto one factor, thus replicating the originally proposed single-factor structure of the scale. Multi-group analyses revealed that configural, metric, and scalar measurement invariance was achieved across gender and age categories (12–14 years, 15–16 years, and 17–18 years). The PLEQ‐C scores showed significant positive correlations with the PQ‐B frequency and distress sub-scores, hence attesting to its convergent validity. In addition, findings confirmed the good divergent validity of the PLEQ-C, by demonstrating significant correlations with measures of depression, anxiety, stress, and insomnia. Findings preliminarily suggest that the Arabic PLEQ-C is suitable and feasible for assessing PLEs self-reported by children and adolescents in Arab settings. Such an instrument could allow for simple, quick, and effective screening and identification of community youth who need to go through comprehensive clinical interviews and benefit from clinical monitoring or early psychological intervention.
  • Cross-national Validation of the Arabic Version of the Cannabis Use Intention Questionnaire (CUIQ) Among University Students from Egypt, Kuwait, and Tunisia

    Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Alhuwailah, Amthal; Stambouli, Manel; Hakiri, Abir; Cheour, Majda; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; et al. (2023-11-09)
    Despite the widespread use of cannabis and its relative acceptance among Arab young adults, there still remains high social stigma in addressing these issues and providing treatment options. In addition, research on cannabis use among young adults from Arab nations is still scarce, which is in part due to the lack of valid and reliable measures that are tailored to the Arab social-cultural contexts. This leaves young cannabis users, health care providers, researchers, legislators and policy makers without the evidence needed to make informed decisions about cannabis use. For these reasons, this study aimed to translate and validate the Cannabis Use Intention Questionnaire (CUIQ) into Arabic in a sample of university students. A cross-sectional, web-based study was carried-out in three Arab countries (Egypt, Kuwait and Tunisia). A total of 2033 Arabic-speaking university students (mean age of 23.25 ± 5.00 years, 76.0% females) were administered an Arabic translation of CUIQ, along with other measures. Confirmatory factor analysis provided support to the four-dimensional factor structure of the Arabic CUIQ (i.e. Attitudes toward consumption, Subjective norms, Self-efficacy to abstinence and Cannabis use intention) in our sample of Arabic-speaking university students. Excellent reliability (internal consistency) was demonstrated for the total score (ω = .85/α = .85) and for each subscale (ω ranging from .88 to .97 and α ranging from .88 to .97). Measurement invariance was established across gender and country groups. Adequate validity was attested through significant correlations of CUIQ scores with greater cannabis use during the last 6 months, more favourable attitudes towards cannabis and more severe psychological problems. Making available an Arabic-validated version of this sound, brief, simple, easy-to-use and economic self-report measure of cannabis use intention is a valuable contribution to the medical and scientific community.
  • Psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the shortest version of the Central Religiosity Scale (CRS-5) in a sample of young adults

    Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; El Tawil, Nathalie; El Zouki, Christian Joseph; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; Psychology; et al. (2023-11-18)
    Background: There is a dearth of research on religiosity in Arabic-speaking populations, partly due to a lack of universal, standardized and valid instruments to assess this construct. We sought through this study to establish the psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the shortest version of the Central Religiosity Scale (CRS-5), a widely used measure of religiosity that can be applicable to most religious traditions, thus allowing for worldwide cultural and trans-religious comparisons. Method: A total of 352 Lebanese young adults enrolled in this study with a mean age of 25.08 years (SD = 9.25) and 73.3% women. The forward-backward method was adopted to translate the original English version of the CRS-5 to Arabic. Results: We ran an Exploratory Factor Analysis for the CRS-5 to test whether the expected dimensionality is suitable for the subsequent Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The model found replicates the originally proposed five items and one-factor model. Our findings demonstrated that the Arabic CRS-5 achieved good levels of composite reliability, with a McDonald's ω coefficient of .85. A multi-group CFA was modelled for the examination of measurement invariance of the Arabic CRS-5 across gender at the metric, configural, and scalar levels. Between-gender comparisons revealed no significant differences between males and females regarding CRS-5 scores. Finally, we found that religiosity was positively correlated with positive mental health aspects (i.e., social support) and inversely correlated with negative mental health aspects (i.e., suicidal ideation, depression, social anxiety and entrapment); thus attesting for the convergent validity of the CRS-5 as a measure of centrality of religiosity. Conclusion: Pending further validations with larger and more representative populations, we preliminarily suggest that the Arabic CRS-5 is psychometrically sound, and can be recommended for use for research and clinical purposes in Arabic-speaking people of various religions and cultures.
  • Psychometric validation of the Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ) into Arabic

    Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Hallit, Rabih; Azzi, Vanessa; Dabbous, Mariam; Rashid, Tabassum; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; Department Collaboration; NA; 0; et al. (2024-02-19)
    Background Research on dysmorphic concerns (DC) in Arabic-speaking contexts is hampered by the lack of validated tools. Because DC are culturally dependent, psychometrically sound measures are needed at the national level to closely and accurately investigate the construct in specific societies and populations. The purpose of the current research was to investigate the psychometric properties of Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ) in its Arabic translation in Lebanese adults. Methods The study involved 515 participants (69.9% females, mean age of 27.55 ± 10.92 years) who completed a self-report, web-based questionnaire. Results Confirmatory factor analysis indicated excellent construct validity, as the one-factor structure of the Arabic DCQ fits well with the data. McDonald’s omega was 0.89 in our sample, evidencing an excellent level of internal consistency. Furthermore, the results from the multigroup analysis showed that the DCQ holds similar structural model between genders at the metric, configural, and scalar levels. Finally, DC levels correlated inversely with body appreciation and self-esteem and positively with disordered eating symptoms, thus supporting the concurrent and convergent validity of the Arabic DCQ. Conclusion The DCQ translated into Arabic appears to have a valid self-assessment measure to capture the presence of DC manifestations. It is anticipated that the Arabic DCQ will be advantageous for healthcare professionals and researchers working with Arabic-speaking people around the world.
  • The relationship between climate change anxiety and psychotic experiences is mediated by death anxiety

    Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Malaeb, Diana; Postigo, Alvaro; Dabbous, Mariam; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; et al. (2024-01-26)
    Background: As climate change persists, accelerates, and intensifies, and since mitigating factors are absent, mental health impacts are expected to follow the same patterns. Therefore, it appears of utmost importance to deepen and broaden the knowledge and understanding of how and through which mechanisms climate change anxiety (CCA) may interplay with mental health outcomes. Based on the stress-vulnerability model of psychosis, the present study proposed to examine the relationship between CCA and psychotic experiences (PEs), and to test the theoretically-driven hypothesis that death anxiety acts as a mediator in this relationship. Method: This study adopted a cross-sectional approach involving a sample of young adults aged 18 to 35 years (mean age = 24.56 ± 22.49 years; 63.9% females) originating from, and residing in Lebanon. Results: The results of the mediation analysis showed that death anxiety partially mediated the association between CCA and PEs. Higher CCA was significantly associated with higher death anxiety; higher death anxiety was significantly associated with more PEs. Finally, higher CCA was directly and significantly associated with more PEs. Conclusion: Drawing from the present preliminary findings, the key tentative recommendation is that addressing death anxiety might alleviate the association between CCA and PEs. In addition, government decision-makers need to recognize the necessity of considering climate change implications on mental health in policy and decision-making.
  • Moderating effect of alexithymia between problem gambling and psychotic experiences in university students

    Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Stambouli, Manel; Hakiri, Abir; Loch, Alexandre; Cheour, Majda; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; et al. (2024-01-03)
    Background: Most of the young individuals with problem gambling (PG) or psychotic experiences (PEs) are less prone to seek medical help. Therefore, community-based studies investigating the relationship between these entities in non-clinical young people across a continuum of severity are warranted. To this end, the present study proposes to advance knowledge on the mechanisms that potentially underlie the association between PG and PEs, by examining the role of a potential moderator, i.e. alexithymia, in this relationship. Methods: A total of 399 participants enrolled in this study (mean age = 21.58 ± 3.20 years) participated in an online cross-sectional survey. The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief (PQ-B), and the Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS-20) were used. Results: Thirty-three (8.3%) participants had problem-gambling, whereas 13 (3.3%) were probable pathological gamblers. Moderation analysis results adjusted over confounders (age, household crowding index, marital status, personal history of mental disorder, other illegal drug use) showed that the interaction PG by alexithymia (p = .018) was significantly associated with PEs scores. At moderate (Beta = 1.93) and high (Beta = 3.38) levels of alexithymia, more PG was significantly associated with more PEs scores. Conclusion: Findings suggest that GP may have a different impact on PEs depending on the individual's level of alexithymia. As such, both alexithymia and gambling behavior should be considered in the clinical assessment of young people who present with PEs, which can help in implementing more tailored and individualized treatment plans.
  • The relationship between cyberbullying perpetration/victimization and suicidal ideation in healthy young adults: the indirect effects of positive and negative psychotic experiences

    Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Malaeb, Diana; Stambouli, Manel; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; Psychology; et al. (2024-02-14)
    Background: Even though not all cyber bullies or victims think of (or consider) suicide, they clearly appear to be at an increased risk. One possible strategy to reduce suicide risk is to decrease cyberbullying occurrence; but this approach has its limitations, as it is certainly an illusion to believe that cyberbullying could be controlled or eliminated in a digitalized world. Another alternative and interesting strategy is to consider mediating factors that may indirectly affect suicidality. To this end, our purpose was to test the hypothesis that positive and negative psychotic experiences (PEs) mediate the relationship from cyberbullying perpetration/victimization to suicidal ideation (SI). Method: The study followed a cross-sectional design, and was conducted during the period from June to September 2022. A total of 3103 healthy community participants from Lebanon were included (mean age 21.73 ± 3.80 years, 63.6% females). Results: After adjusting over potential confounders, mediation analysis models showed that both positive and negative PEs partially mediated the associations between cyberbullying victimization/perpetration and SI. Higher cyberbullying perpetration and victimization were significantly associated with greater positive and negative PEs; more severe positive and negative PEs were significantly associated with higher levels of SI. Higher cyberbullying victimization and perpetration were significantly and directly associated with higher levels of SI. Conclusion: In light of our preliminary findings, there appears to be an urgent need for a new focus on carefully assessing and addressing attenuated psychotic symptoms in healthy individuals engaged in cyberbullying either as victims or bullies and who present with SI. It is important that school counselors and decision-makers consider a holistic approach taking into account both external/environmental (bullying) and internal/individual (PEs) factors in their suicide prevention programs. Future longitudinal research in larger samples are still required to confirm our findings and further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the relationship between cyberbullying and suicide.
  • Psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the long (12 items) and short (7 items) forms of the Violent Ideations Scale (VIS) in a non-clinical sample of adolescents

    Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Malaeb, Diana; Yakin, Ecem; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; Psychology; et al. (2024-01-02)
    Background: Accurately measuring violent ideations would be of particular high relevance in Arab countries, which are witnessing an unprecedented increase in violence rates among adolescents because of the widespread social, economic and political unrest in the region. Therefore, the present study aimed to test the psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the 12-item and the 7-item forms of the Violent Ideations Scale (VIS and VIS-SF) in a sample on non-clinical Arabic-speaking adolescents. Methods: Five hundred seventy-seven community adolescents (mean age of 15.90 ± 1.73 years, 56.5% females) answered an anonymous online survey comprising an Arabic translation of the Violent Ideations Scale (VIS) and a measure of physical aggression. Results: Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) offered support for the single-factor structure of the Arabic VIS and the VIS-SF. Both the long and short forms of the scale yielded excellent internal consistency, with McDonald's ω coefficients of 0.96 and 0.94 and Cronbach's α coefficients of 0.96 and 0.94, respectively. Multi-group CFA established measurement invariance across gender groups. Finally, results revealed significant and positive correlations between the two forms of the VIS and physical aggression scores, thus supporting concurrent validity. Conclusion: Both the VIS and VIS-SF have demonstrated good psychometric properties in their Arabic versions, and suitability for sound assessment of violent ideations. We therefore expect that these measures assist clinicians in risk assessment and management of violence, and help foster research in this area in Arab countries.
  • Psychometric properties of the Arabic versions of the long (27 items) and short (13 items) forms of the interpersonal mindfulness scale (IMS)

    Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Malaeb, Diana; Azzi, Vanessa; Hallit, Rabih; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; et al. (2024-04-03)
    Background: There is a lack of measures and data on interpersonal mindfulness from non-Western cultures, which can hinder advances in our understanding of the construct, its conceptual representation, and its effects on human connection and relationships within different cultural settings. To fill this gap and help spark future research in this area in the Arab world, the current study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the 27-item and the 13-item versions of the interpersonal Mindfulness Scale (IMS) in a sample of Arabic-speaking adolescents from the general population. Methods: A web-based survey was conducted in a sample of 527 Lebanese community adolescents (Mean age = 15.73 ± 1.81 years; 56% females). The IMS was translated from English into Arabic using the forward-backward translation method. Participants completed the long and short forms of the IMS, as well as the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire-Short Form (BPAQ-SF), and the 5-item Brief Irritability Test. Results: Confirmatory factor analyses provided support to the four-factor structure of both the 27-item and the 13-item IMS (i.e., Presence, Awareness of Self and Others, Nonjudgmental Acceptance, and Nonreactivity). The original and the short form versions of the IMS yielded excellent internal consistency in our sample, with a Cronbach's α coefficients of 0.95 and 0.90, and McDonald's omega coefficients of 0.95 and 0.90, respectively. Multigroup comparisons suggested the factorial invariance of the Arabic 27-item and 13-item IMS between male and female participants at the metric, configural, and scalar levels. Finally, the concurrent validity of both full-length and short form of the IMS appeared to be good and comparable, as attested by patterns of correlations in expected directions with outcome variables (i.e., aggression, anger, hostility, and irritability). Conclusion: The present findings provide support for the good psychometric qualities of the Arabic translation of the IMS in both long and short forms, suggesting that these scales are suitable for use to measure interpersonal mindfulness in Arabic-speaking youth, at least in Lebanon. We expect that the IMS, in particular its shortest form, will prompt more systematic investigation of interpersonal mindfulness in the Arabic-speaking populations, especially with regard to enhancing healthy communications with others and building effective social relationships.
  • Depressive symptoms among a sample of Lebanese adolescents: Scale validation and correlates with disordered eating

    Dagher, Dina; Samaha, Serena; Mhanna, Mariam; Soufia, Michel; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; Haddad, Georges; External Collaboration; NA; 0; et al. (2023-08-01)
    Background: Adolescence is a transitional phase that brings many psychological and physiological challenges that increase emotional vulnerability and threaten the adolescent's mental well-being. Indeed, mental illnesses, such as depression and eating disorders, show an alarming increase in prevalence after puberty. Adolescent depression is particularly concerning owing to the fact that it is a principal cause of disability among adolescents, an important risk factor for suicidality, and is associated with higher risks of present and subsequent morbidity. Our study aimed at (1) examining the psychometric properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and (2) evaluating the correlation between depression, eating disorders, stress, and other variables in a sample of Lebanese adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional research enlisted 555 Lebanese teenagers (15-18 years) from all Lebanese governorates (May-June 2020). The confirmatory factor analysis of the PHQ-9 scale items was carried out using the SPSS AMOS program v.24. The relative chi-square, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), Tucker Lewis Index (TLI) and the comparative fit index (CFI) were all utilized as goodness-of-fit indexes. Results: The median age of the participants was 16.66 ± 1.00 years, with 75.7% females. Among these 555 adolescents, 62.9% had mild-to-moderate depression and 14% reported moderately severe-to-severe depression, while only 23.1% were classified as not suffering from depression. Confirmatory factor analysis of the PHQ-9 scale was conducted using the one-factor structure that is described in the literature; the fit indices obtained were acceptable as follows: χ2/df= 136.26/27 =5.05, CFI=0.92, TLI=0.90 and RMSEA=0.085 [0.072-0.100]. However, the modification indices between items 6 and 9 were high; after correlating these two items, the fit indices improved more as follows: χ2/df= 105.59/26=4.06, CFI=0.94, TLI=0.92 and RMSEA=0.074 [0.060-0.089]. The multivariable analysis results showed that more stress (β=0.59), female sex (β=1.54), and more binge eating (β=0.16) were significantly associated with more depression. Conclusion: This study supports the validity of the PHQ-9, which presents as a reliable tool for the evaluation of depression in future epidemiological studies of Lebanese adolescents. It also elucidates the high level of depression among this age group and its correlation with modifiable and unmodifiable factors.
  • Psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the short 9-item drive for muscularity scale (DMS-9)

    Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Malaeb, Diana; Dabbous, Mariam; Hallit, Rabih; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; et al. (2023-09-19)
    Background: After the original 15-item Drive for Muscularity Scale developed by McCreary et al. in 2004, a more theoretically based scale that replicates the original DMS subscales with a better conceptual clarity and a shorter number of items, i.e., the DMS-9, has recently been developed by Chaba et al. in 2018. We sought to contribute to the literature especially under the Arab context, by investigating the psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the DMS-9 in a sample of Arabic-speaking Lebanese university students of both genders. Methods: University students (N = 402; 55.2% females) from multiple universities in Lebanon were invited to fill the survey in this cross-sectional designed study (December 2022 and January 2023). Our sample was chosen using the snowball technique; a soft copy of the questionnaire was created using google forms software, and an online approach was conceived to proceed with the data collection. Results: Using an Exploratory Factor Analysis-to- Confirmatory Factor Analysis strategy, we found that the original two-factor model of the DMS proposed in the parent study was adequately replicated in our sample. The two DMS-9 factor scores showed very good McDonald's omega values (ω > 0.8). Findings also showed that gender invariance was achieved at the configural, metric, and scalar levels. Additionally, drive for muscularity scores correlated in the expected way with other study variables, providing support for the convergent and divergent validity of the Arabic DMS-9. Specifically, we found that greater drive for muscularity attitudes and behaviors significantly correlated with more severe muscle dysmorphic symptoms, inappropriate eating attitudes, muscle bias internalization, and lower body appreciation. Conclusion: Findings preliminarily suggest that the Arabic DMS-9 is psychometrically sound and suitable tool to assess the drive for muscularity construct among Arabic-speaking community adults. Making the Arabic DMS-9 available will hopefully benefit the scientific community working in Arab settings, promote local and international research in this area, and offer descriptive data on how drive for muscularity may interfere with health indicators in the general Arab population.

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