The critical success factors of restaurant franchisors in LebanonThis research aims to determine the effect of selected organizational factors on the success of Lebanese restaurant franchisors. It will identify the critical success factors of Lebanese restaurants facilitating their expansion and growth. The research is based on a quantitative study that examines the dependency of franchise success on five specific factors studied in this research (preset and definitive franchisee selection criteria, internationalization at a shorter length of time, years of experience in the food and beverage (F&B) and/or the franchise business, proportions of company owned outlets versus franchised outlet and short payback period on the return on investment (ROI) of the franchised outlet). Results revealed that success of franchising depends on a variety of factors some of which were already tackled in this research: internationalizing at the right time, years of experience in the F&B and/or the franchise business, and proportions of company owned outlets versus franchised outlets.
The Perceived Image of Nudity in Digital AdvertisementsThe perception of nudity in ads is a very wide and critical topic and it has been commonly used in advertising campaigns in different countries. Many factors influence the perception of customers in advertisements such as gender, education level, culture and race. The purpose of this study is to determine how taboo related to sex and nudity is perceived in ads and how it effects the brand itself. Data was collected via an online questionnaire and was distributed to Lebanese women of different age groups, educational levels, religions, affiliations and occupations. The results showed that nudity level affects consumers’ attention and interpretation of digital advertisements. Furthermore, the study concluded that the presence of nudity in ads has an effect over the purchasing intention.
Impact of Facebook marketing on Lebanese athletes' decision-making processThis article tackles the impact of Facebook marketing on the Lebanese sports community. It explores the different components of social media marketing tools while stressing on Facebook as a mean of influencing athletes' decision-making process. Hypotheses were generated to analyse the relationships between the following three factors of Facebook marketing: athlete Facebook interaction, daily exposure, and ads including brand ambassadors and the consumers' decision-making process. Our study was carried out on a sample of 385 athletes affiliated to sports clubs, NGO's, sports associations, sports communities and sports brand ambassadors. The results of the empirical study revealed a positive relationship between Facebook marketing and the decision-making process of the Lebanese sports society. Furthermore, it stressed on the importance of Facebook interaction as it deemed to be a catalyst to brand's image, and has an indirect impact on sales. Ads including sports brand ambassadors were shown to play an important role as well as in enhancing brand's sales.