Am I worthy to my leader? Role of leader-based self-esteem and social comparison in the LMX-performance relationshipBACKGROUND: Most leadership theories, such as transformational, ethical, and servant leadership, emphasize the notion that leaders influence their followers’ in-role and extra-role work performance by treating them collectively and similarly. On the other hand, leader-member exchange (LMX) theory challenges this idea and argues that leaders treat followers differently and have high-quality exchange relationships with some followers and low-quality ones with others. However, few studies have examined LMX differentiated relationships in social contexts. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the role of employee leader-based self-esteem (LBSE) (i.e., employees’ self-evaluation of their worth derived from the quality of the relationship with their supervisor) in the relationship between LMX and two types of performance: task performance and organizational citizenship behaviour at individual level (OCB-I). Using an integrated theoretical framework of social comparison and self-consistency theories, we develop a moderated mediation model in which the mediating role of LBSE in the LMX-task performance and OCB-I relationships is conditional on the values of LMX social comparison (LMXSC). METHODS:Using a research sample of 298 manager-employee matching dyads working in 43 branches of a leading bank in Pakistan, results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses provided support for our developed model. RESULTS: We found that LMX positively led to LBSE which, in turn, served as a mediator between LMX and both performance types, with a stronger effect on OCB-I. We also found that by moderating the relationship between LMX and LBSE, LMXSC moderated the mediating role of LBSE, which had stronger effect on performance at high values of LMXSC than at low values. CONCLUSIONS: Following these findings, we discuss the contributions that this study offers to LMX and self-esteem literature and its managerial implications.
Work-Family Conflict and Employee Wellbeing: Examining the Buffering Effects of Workplace Provided Family-Friendly ResourcesThis study examines the moderating effect of two family-friendly resources available in the workplace such as family friendly practices (FFP) and family supportive supervisor (FSS) on the relationship between work-family conflict and employee wellbeing. The data was collected from 297 frontline sales employees working for four major insurance companies in Pakistan. Each employee received a hard copy of the questionnaire with a cover letter outlining the goals and voluntary nature of the study. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to analyze the collected data and test the proposed hypotheses. Findings suggest that FFP and FSS were linked to lower levels of depression and anxiety, and higher levels of job satisfaction and organization commitment. FFP buffer the impact of WIF and FIW on depression. FSS buffer the impact of WIF and FIW on depression, anxiety, job satisfaction, and organization commitment. It is important to focus on both formal (i.e. FFP) and informal (i.e. FSS) family-friendly resources when designing an intervention program for enhancing employee wellbeing.
Students' perceptions of Facebook for academic purposesFacebook is the most popular Social Network Site (SNS) among college students. Despite the popularity and extensive use of Facebook by students, its use has not made significant inroads into classroom usage. In this study, we seek to examine why this is the case and whether it would be worthwhile for faculty to invest the time to integrate Facebook into their teaching. To this end, we decided to undertake a study with a sample of 214 undergraduate students at the University of Huelva (Spain). We applied the structural equation model specifically designed by Mazman and Usluel (2010) to identify the factors that may motivate these students to adopt and use social network tools, specifically Facebook, for educational purposes. According to our results, Social Influence is the most important factor in predicting the adoption of Facebook; students are influenced to adopt it to establish or maintain contact with other people with whom they share interests. Regarding the purposes of Facebook usage, Social Relations is perceived as the most important factor among all of the purposes collected. Our findings also revealed that the educational use of Facebook is explained directly by its purposes of usage and indirectly by its adoption.