Now showing items 21-40 of 132

    • Psychometric properties of the Arabic versions of the long (27 items) and short (13 items) forms of the interpersonal mindfulness scale (IMS)

      Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Malaeb, Diana; Azzi, Vanessa; Hallit, Rabih; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; et al. (2024-04-03)
      Background: There is a lack of measures and data on interpersonal mindfulness from non-Western cultures, which can hinder advances in our understanding of the construct, its conceptual representation, and its effects on human connection and relationships within different cultural settings. To fill this gap and help spark future research in this area in the Arab world, the current study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the 27-item and the 13-item versions of the interpersonal Mindfulness Scale (IMS) in a sample of Arabic-speaking adolescents from the general population. Methods: A web-based survey was conducted in a sample of 527 Lebanese community adolescents (Mean age = 15.73 ± 1.81 years; 56% females). The IMS was translated from English into Arabic using the forward-backward translation method. Participants completed the long and short forms of the IMS, as well as the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire-Short Form (BPAQ-SF), and the 5-item Brief Irritability Test. Results: Confirmatory factor analyses provided support to the four-factor structure of both the 27-item and the 13-item IMS (i.e., Presence, Awareness of Self and Others, Nonjudgmental Acceptance, and Nonreactivity). The original and the short form versions of the IMS yielded excellent internal consistency in our sample, with a Cronbach's α coefficients of 0.95 and 0.90, and McDonald's omega coefficients of 0.95 and 0.90, respectively. Multigroup comparisons suggested the factorial invariance of the Arabic 27-item and 13-item IMS between male and female participants at the metric, configural, and scalar levels. Finally, the concurrent validity of both full-length and short form of the IMS appeared to be good and comparable, as attested by patterns of correlations in expected directions with outcome variables (i.e., aggression, anger, hostility, and irritability). Conclusion: The present findings provide support for the good psychometric qualities of the Arabic translation of the IMS in both long and short forms, suggesting that these scales are suitable for use to measure interpersonal mindfulness in Arabic-speaking youth, at least in Lebanon. We expect that the IMS, in particular its shortest form, will prompt more systematic investigation of interpersonal mindfulness in the Arabic-speaking populations, especially with regard to enhancing healthy communications with others and building effective social relationships.
    • Depressive symptoms among a sample of Lebanese adolescents: Scale validation and correlates with disordered eating

      Dagher, Dina; Samaha, Serena; Mhanna, Mariam; Soufia, Michel; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; Haddad, Georges; External Collaboration; NA; 0; et al. (2023-08-01)
      Background: Adolescence is a transitional phase that brings many psychological and physiological challenges that increase emotional vulnerability and threaten the adolescent's mental well-being. Indeed, mental illnesses, such as depression and eating disorders, show an alarming increase in prevalence after puberty. Adolescent depression is particularly concerning owing to the fact that it is a principal cause of disability among adolescents, an important risk factor for suicidality, and is associated with higher risks of present and subsequent morbidity. Our study aimed at (1) examining the psychometric properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and (2) evaluating the correlation between depression, eating disorders, stress, and other variables in a sample of Lebanese adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional research enlisted 555 Lebanese teenagers (15-18 years) from all Lebanese governorates (May-June 2020). The confirmatory factor analysis of the PHQ-9 scale items was carried out using the SPSS AMOS program v.24. The relative chi-square, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), Tucker Lewis Index (TLI) and the comparative fit index (CFI) were all utilized as goodness-of-fit indexes. Results: The median age of the participants was 16.66 ± 1.00 years, with 75.7% females. Among these 555 adolescents, 62.9% had mild-to-moderate depression and 14% reported moderately severe-to-severe depression, while only 23.1% were classified as not suffering from depression. Confirmatory factor analysis of the PHQ-9 scale was conducted using the one-factor structure that is described in the literature; the fit indices obtained were acceptable as follows: χ2/df= 136.26/27 =5.05, CFI=0.92, TLI=0.90 and RMSEA=0.085 [0.072-0.100]. However, the modification indices between items 6 and 9 were high; after correlating these two items, the fit indices improved more as follows: χ2/df= 105.59/26=4.06, CFI=0.94, TLI=0.92 and RMSEA=0.074 [0.060-0.089]. The multivariable analysis results showed that more stress (β=0.59), female sex (β=1.54), and more binge eating (β=0.16) were significantly associated with more depression. Conclusion: This study supports the validity of the PHQ-9, which presents as a reliable tool for the evaluation of depression in future epidemiological studies of Lebanese adolescents. It also elucidates the high level of depression among this age group and its correlation with modifiable and unmodifiable factors.
    • Psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the short 9-item drive for muscularity scale (DMS-9)

      Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Malaeb, Diana; Dabbous, Mariam; Hallit, Rabih; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; et al. (2023-09-19)
      Background: After the original 15-item Drive for Muscularity Scale developed by McCreary et al. in 2004, a more theoretically based scale that replicates the original DMS subscales with a better conceptual clarity and a shorter number of items, i.e., the DMS-9, has recently been developed by Chaba et al. in 2018. We sought to contribute to the literature especially under the Arab context, by investigating the psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the DMS-9 in a sample of Arabic-speaking Lebanese university students of both genders. Methods: University students (N = 402; 55.2% females) from multiple universities in Lebanon were invited to fill the survey in this cross-sectional designed study (December 2022 and January 2023). Our sample was chosen using the snowball technique; a soft copy of the questionnaire was created using google forms software, and an online approach was conceived to proceed with the data collection. Results: Using an Exploratory Factor Analysis-to- Confirmatory Factor Analysis strategy, we found that the original two-factor model of the DMS proposed in the parent study was adequately replicated in our sample. The two DMS-9 factor scores showed very good McDonald's omega values (ω > 0.8). Findings also showed that gender invariance was achieved at the configural, metric, and scalar levels. Additionally, drive for muscularity scores correlated in the expected way with other study variables, providing support for the convergent and divergent validity of the Arabic DMS-9. Specifically, we found that greater drive for muscularity attitudes and behaviors significantly correlated with more severe muscle dysmorphic symptoms, inappropriate eating attitudes, muscle bias internalization, and lower body appreciation. Conclusion: Findings preliminarily suggest that the Arabic DMS-9 is psychometrically sound and suitable tool to assess the drive for muscularity construct among Arabic-speaking community adults. Making the Arabic DMS-9 available will hopefully benefit the scientific community working in Arab settings, promote local and international research in this area, and offer descriptive data on how drive for muscularity may interfere with health indicators in the general Arab population.
    • ChatGPT is not ready yet for use in providing mental health assessment and interventions

      Dergaa, Ismail; Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Hallit, Souheil; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Ben Saad, Helmi; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; Psychology; et al. (2024-01-04)
      Background: Psychiatry is a specialized field of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental health disorders. With advancements in technology and the rise of artificial intelligence (AI), there has been a growing interest in exploring the potential of AI language models systems, such as Chat Generative Pre-training Transformer (ChatGPT), to assist in the field of psychiatry. Objective: Our study aimed to evaluates the effectiveness, reliability and safeness of ChatGPT in assisting patients with mental health problems, and to assess its potential as a collaborative tool for mental health professionals through a simulated interaction with three distinct imaginary patients. Methods: Three imaginary patient scenarios (cases A, B, and C) were created, representing different mental health problems. All three patients present with, and seek to eliminate, the same chief complaint (i.e., difficulty falling asleep and waking up frequently during the night in the last 2°weeks). ChatGPT was engaged as a virtual psychiatric assistant to provide responses and treatment recommendations. Results: In case A, the recommendations were relatively appropriate (albeit non-specific), and could potentially be beneficial for both users and clinicians. However, as complexity of clinical cases increased (cases B and C), the information and recommendations generated by ChatGPT became inappropriate, even dangerous; and the limitations of the program became more glaring. The main strengths of ChatGPT lie in its ability to provide quick responses to user queries and to simulate empathy. One notable limitation is ChatGPT inability to interact with users to collect further information relevant to the diagnosis and management of a patient's clinical condition. Another serious limitation is ChatGPT inability to use critical thinking and clinical judgment to drive patient's management. Conclusion: As for July 2023, ChatGPT failed to give the simple medical advice given certain clinical scenarios. This supports that the quality of ChatGPT-generated content is still far from being a guide for users and professionals to provide accurate mental health information. It remains, therefore, premature to conclude on the usefulness and safety of ChatGPT in mental health practice.
    • Psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the briefest version of the Zimbardo time perspective inventory (ZTPI-15)

      Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Chahine, Abdallah; Mhanna, Mariam; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; Psychology; et al. (2023-05-12)
      Background: Self-perceived temporal perspectives has been shown to vary across cultures. Although cross-cultural differences may be blurred by the globalization, accelerated pace-of-life worldwide and spread of multitasking; the way Arab individuals deal with time has its specificities. However, research in this area is scant in the Arab world. One of the main reasons for this scarcity of research is the lack of psychometrically sound and convenient-to-use measures. We aimed to examine the psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the briefest version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZPTI-15). Methods: A sample of community Arabic-speaking Adults from Lebanon (N = 423, 68.6% females, mean age 29.19 ± 12.54 years) were administered the Arabic ZPTI-15. The forward and backward translation method was adopted. Results: Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) revealed that the five-factor model exhibited a good fit to the data. The five ZTPI-15 subscales yielded a McDonald's omega ranging from 0.43 to 0.84. Multi-group CFA ascertained the invariance of the Arabic ZTPI-15 across gender at the configural, metric, and scalar levels. Our findings support divergent validity of the scale by showing positive correlations between past negative, present fatalistic, present hedonistic dimensions, and psychological distress; as well as negative correlations between past positive, future focused dimensions, and distress. Conclusion: The Arabic ZTPI-15 is easy-to-use, valid, reliable, and will hopefully enable the conduction of future research in the field to purposively provide comprehensive insight into the time perspective patterns and correlates in Arab countries, and the broad Arabic-speaking community globally.
    • Psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the multidimensional social support scale (MSPSS) in a community sample of adults

      Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Fawaz, Mirna; Hallit, Rabih; Sawma, Toni; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; et al. (2023-06-14)
      Background: There is a lack of methodologically strong measure to assess perceived social support among Arabic-speaking populations. Our main objective was therefore to examine the psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the Multidimensional Social Support Scale (MSPSS) in a sample of Arabic-speaking Lebanese adults from the general population. Methods: We adopted a cross-sectional design involving a convenience sample of 387 non-clinical Lebanese adults aged 26.17 ± 11.47 years (58.4% females). Participants were administered a web-based anonymous questionnaire containing the MSPSS, the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and the Post traumatic growth Inventory-Short Form. The forward-backward translation method was applied. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and gender invariance in the MSPSS were examined. McDonald's ω coefficients were calculated as internal consistency indicators. Results: The Arabic MSPSS and its subscales have a high internal consistency with McDonald's ω values between 0.94 and 0.97. CFA indicated that fit of the three-factor model was acceptable. All indices suggested that configural, metric, and scalar invariance was supported across gender. Both genders exhibited no significant difference in all MSPSS dimensions. Convergent validity was supported by showing that all three MSPSS sub-scores and total score correlated significantly and positively with resilience and posttraumatic growth scores. Conclusion: Although further cross-cultural validations involving other Arab countries and communities are still needed, we preliminarily suggest that this scale is applicable to the broad Arabic-speaking people for the measurement of perceived social support in clinical and research contexts.
    • Psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the Inflexible Eating Questionnaire (IEQ) in a non-clinical sample of adults

      Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Azzi, Vanessa; Malaeb, Diana; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; Psychology; et al. (2023-07-10)
      Background: The Inflexible Eating Questionnaire (IEQ) is an 11-item instrument designed to evaluate the behavioural and psychological components of inflexible eating. However, the psychometric properties of the instrument have been infrequently examined, and no previous work has examined its utility in the context of the Middle East. Methods: A total of 826 Lebanese citizens and residents completed a novel Arabic translation of the IEQ, as well as previously validated measures of body appreciation, functionality appreciation, and disordered eating. Results: The unidimensional factor structure of the IEQ was upheld through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, with all 11 items retained. We obtained evidence of scalar invariance across gender and found that there were no significant differences in observed IEQ scores between men and women. IEQ scores were also found to have adequate composite reliability and adequate patterns of concurrent validity. Conclusion: The present findings provide support for the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the IEQ in examining inflexible eating in Arabic-speaking adults in Lebanon. Inflexible or rigid dietary restraint reflects an all-or-none approach that encompasses feeling compelled to obey a set of self-imposed dieting rules (e.g., avoiding high-calorie food, calorie counting, fasting to lose weight and/or skipping meals), having a sense of self-control and feeling empowered when adhering to these rules, and not respecting or following internal/external cues of hunger, satiety, and appetite. Therefore, the inflexible eating construct is composed of two dimensions, the first one is behavioural (i.e., obeying restrictive dietary rules) and the second one is psychological (i.e., the belief that following these rules is a consistent must). Until recently, the measures designed to assess inflexible eating focused on the behavioral dimension, while omitting to account for the psychological processes underlying the construct. To bridge this gap, the Inflexible Eating Questionnaire (IEQ), an 11-item self-report measure, was developed to assess both the behavioural and psychological components of dietary restraint. To date, the IEQ is not yet validated in Arabic. Through the present study, we aimed to examine the psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the IEQ, which would in turn facilitate improved research and clinical practices related to dietary restraint in Arabic-speaking nations. Overall, findings provided support for the good psychometric qualities of the Arabic version of the IEQ, which suggests its utility for detecting inflexible eating in Arabic-speaking adults.
    • Body image as a mediator in the relationship between psychotic experiences and later disordered eating: A 12-month longitudinal study in high school adolescents

      Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Cheour, Majda; Hallit, Souheil; Loch, Alexandre; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; Psychology; 0; et al. (2023-12-31)
      Background: The relationship between psychosis and disordered eating remains a challenging area of research to which little interest was paid. Using longitudinal data, we aimed to explore the hypothesis that the pathways from psychotic experiences (PEs) to disordered eating (DE) and body-mass index (BMI) are mediated by body-image disturbances. Methods: A prospective longitudinal study was performed. High-school students (N = 510, 61.2% females, mean age of 16.05 ± 1.01 years) were asked to complete three scheduled assessments (Baseline, 6 months, and 12 months). Results: Two body image components, that is, Overweight Preoccupation and Body Area Satisfaction, mediated the prospective association between baseline PEs and DE 12 months later. Direct effects were significant. After accounting for indirect effects through more severe body image concerns at 6 months, higher baseline PEs were significantly associated with greater DE at 12 months. Baseline PEs and 6-month body image explained a significant proportion of variance in 12-month DE. However, we did not find evidence of a direct prospective association between PEs and BMI. Conclusion: This study is the first to assess the mediating role of body image between PEs and DE. Findings offer promising new avenues for early intervention to help mitigate the effects of PEs on DE in adolescents.
    • Psychometric properties of an arabic translation of the short form of Weinstein noise sensitivity scale (NSS-SF) in a community sample of adolescents

      Azzi, Nohad-Maria; Azzi, Vanessa; Hallit, Rabih; Malaeb, Diana; Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; et al. (2023-11-08)
      Background: The Weinstein Noise Sensitivity Scale (NSS) is widely recognized as a prominent unidimensional self-reported questionnaire to measure noise sensitivity, which is regarded as the foremost subjective factor moderating the impact of noise on perceived levels of annoyance. In this current study, we conducted an examination of the psychometric properties of a newly translated Arabic version of the short form of the scale (NSS-SF). Methods: A sample of 527 Lebanese adolescents participated in the study, completing the NSS-SF with measures of noise annoyance and insomnia. The total sample was randomly divided into two subsamples. Exploratory-to-Confirmatory Factor Analysis (EFA-CFA) was conducted. The normed model chi-square (χ²/df), the Steiger-Lind root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), the Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) and the comparative fit index (CFI). Values ≤ 5 for χ²/df, and ≤ 0.08 for RMSEA, and 0.90 for CFI and TLI indicate good fit of the model to the data. Composite reliability in both subsamples was assessed using McDonald's ω and Cronbach's alpha. Results: EFA results on the first split-half subsample revealed that one item (item 2) was removed because of low communality (< 0.3); the other 4 items converged on one factor, which explained 67.85% of the common variance (ω = 0.84 and α = 0.84). CFA was conducted on the second half-split subsample in adults according to the model obtained on the first split-half subsample; the fit indices were acceptable as follows: χ2/df = 5.07/2 = 2.54, p < .001, RMSEA = 0.076 (90% CI 0.001, 0.160), SRMR = 0.021, CFI = 0.992, and TLI = 0.976 (ω = 0.84 and α = 0.84). Configural, metric, and scalar invariance was supported across gender in the total sample. Conclusion: Our findings substantiate that the Arabic version of the NSS-SF is a reliable, psychometrically valid instrument for assessing noise sensitivity among Arab adolescents, thereby enhancing its overall utility and applicability within Arab countries.
    • Schizotypal traits in a large sample of high-school and university students from Tunisia: correlates and measurement invariance of the arabic schizotypal personality questionnaire across age and sex

      Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Hakiri, Abir; Stambouli, Manel; Cheour, Majda; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; Psychology; et al. (2023-06-20)
      Background: The main goal of the present study was to examine the characteristics of schizotypal traits and their correlations with genetic (i.e., family history of mental illness), demographic (i.e., age, sex), environmental (e.g., income, urbanicity, tobacco/alcohol/cannabis use), and psychological (i.e., personal history of mental illness other than psychosis) factors in Tunisian high-school and university students. Our secondary goal was to contribute the literature by examining the factor structure and factorial invariance of the Arabic Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) across sex and age (adolescents [12-18 years] vs. young adults [18-35 years]) groups. Method: This was a cross-sectional study involving 3166 students: 1160 (36.6%) high-school students (53.0% females, aged 14.9 ± 1.8); and 2006 (63.4%) university students (63.9% females, aged 21.8 ± 2.3). All students were asked to complete a paper-and-pencil self-administered questionnaire containing sociodemographic characteristics as well as the Arabic version of the SPQ. Results: The total sample yielded total SPQ scores of 24.1 ± 16.6 out of 74. The SPQ yielded good composite reliability as attested by McDonald's omega values ranging from .68 to .80 for all nine subscales. Confirmatory Factor Analysis indicated that fit of the 9-factor model of SPQ scores was acceptable. This model is invariant (at the configural, metric and structural levels) across sex and age. Except for "Odd or eccentric behavior", all schizotypy features were significantly higher among female students compared to males. Multivariable analyses showed that female sex, being a university student, lowest family incomes, tobacco use, and having a personal history of psychiatric illness were significantly associated with higher positive, negative and disorganized schizotypy subscales scores. Conclusion: Future research still needs to confirm our findings and investigate the contribution of the identified factors in the development of clinical psychosis. We can also conclude that the Arabic SPQ is appropriate for measuring and comparing schizotypy across age and sex in clinical and research settings. These findings are highly relevant and essential for ensuring the clinical utility and applicability of the SPQ in cross-cultural research.
    • Psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the body appreciation scale (BAS-2) and its short forms (BAS-2SF) in a community sample of Lebanese adults

      Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Azzi, Vanessa; Malaeb, Diana; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; Psychology; et al. (2023-09-18)
      Objectives: The present study sought to examine the factor structure, reliability, validity and gender invariance of the Arabic Body Appreciation Scale (BAS-2), and its two short forms (the 3-item and 2-item BAS-2SF) among community Lebanese Arabic-speaking adults. Methods: We carried-out an online cross-sectional survey. The 10-item BAS-2, the functionality appreciation scale and the Eating Attitudes Test-26 were completed by 826 Lebanese community adults (57.9% females, aged 25.42 ± 8.44 years). Results: The Arabic 10-item, 3-item and 2-item BAS-2 converged on a one-factor solution, and demonstrated high internal consistency (McDonald's ω value of .92, .88, and .86 respectively). All indices suggested that configural, metric, and scalar invariance was supported across gender. The 3-item and 2-item BAS-2SF were highly correlated with the original BAS-2 (r > 0.9). Higher 10-item, 3-item and 2-item BAS-2 scores correlated significantly and strongly with more positive eating attitudes and greater functionality appreciation, and higher 10-item BAS-2 scores correlated positively and weakly with BMI, supporting convergent validity. Conclusion: The present work contributes to the literature by providing a psychometrically sound Arabic-translation of the BAS-2 and short-forms, benefitting both researchers and clinicians.
    • Psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the Big Three Perfectionism Scale-Short Form (BTPS-SF) in a community sample of adults

      Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Rogoza, Radosław; Hallit, Rabih; Malaeb, Diana; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; et al. (2023-12-11)
      Background: Despite the high clinical relevance of the perfectionism construct as a transdiagnostic contributor to different mental health symptoms, and the recent burgeoning of research in this area across cultures in the past two decades, the Arab region was one of the cultural settings experiencing the slowest progress in this line of research. This study aimed to make a meaningful contribution to the literature by validating an Arabic-language version of the 16-item Big Three Perfectionism Scale-Short Form (BTPS-SF). In particular, we sought to examine structure and concurrent validity, internal consistency, and measurement invariance across gender groups. Method: A web-based, convenience sampling method was adopted to collect a sample of Arabic-speaking adults from the general population of Lebanon (N = 515; aged 27.55 ± 10.92 years; 69.9% females). The forward-backward method was applied in translating the Arabic version of the BTPS-SF. Results: The examination of the internal structure, using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), demonstrated that the three-factor model (i.e., rigid, self-critical, and narcissistic perfectionism) fitted well to the data. All three factors of the Arabic 16-item BTPS-SF yielded excellent reliability estimates, with both Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega ranging from 0.83 to 0.86. Multi-group CFA revealed that fit indices showed no significant difference in model fit at the configural, metric, and scalar levels, thus suggesting that the factor loadings, pattern structure, and item intercepts are invariant across gender groups. Finally, BTPS-SF subscales scores correlated positively with psychological distress (i.e., depression, stress and anxiety), and inversely with subjective well-being, indicating an acceptable concurrent validity. Conclusion: The present findings allow us to conclude that the Arabic BTPS-SF permits to capture reliably and validly three main factors of perfectionism. We hope that providing this psychometrically sound scale will encourage its large use not only in empirical research, but also in clinical applications, including psychological screening and treatment monitoring.
    • Suicide literacy mediates the path from religiosity to suicide stigma among Muslim community adults: Cross-sectional data from four Arab countries

      Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Daher-Nashif, Suhad; Stambouli, Manel; Obeid, Sahar; Cheour, Majda; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; et al. (2023-11-01)
      Background: The majority of research attention has been devoted to the link between religiosity and suicide risk, and a considerable amount of studies has been carried out on how stigma impacts individuals with mental health problems of different kinds. However, the interplay between religiosity, suicide literacy and suicide stigma has seldom been empirically researched, especially quantitatively. We sought through this study to redress the imbalance of research attention by examining the relationship between religiosity and suicide stigma; and the indirect and moderating effects of suicide literacy on this relationship. Method: A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted among Arab-Muslim adults originating from four Arab countries (Egypt: N = 1029, Kuwait: N = 2182, Lebanon N = 781, Tunisia N = 2343; Total sample: N = 6335). The outcome measures included the Arabic Religiosity Scale which taps into variation in the degree of religiosity, the Stigma of Suicide Scale-short form to the solicit degree of stigma related to suicide, and the Literacy of Suicide Scale explores knowledge and understanding of suicide. Results: Our Mediation analyses findings showed that literacy of suicide partially mediated the association between religiosity and stigmatizing attitude toward suicide. Higher religiosity was significantly associated with less literacy of suicide; higher literacy of suicide was significantly associated with less stigma of suicide. Finally, higher religiosity was directly and significantly associated with more stigmatization attitude toward suicide. Conclusion: We contribute the literature by showing, for the first time, that suicide literacy plays a mediating role in the association between religiosity and suicide stigma in a sample of Arab-Muslim community adults. This preliminarily suggests that the effects of religiosity on suicide stigma can be modifiable through improving suicide literacy. This implies that interventions targeting highly religious individuals should pay dual attention to increasing suicide literacy and lowering suicide stigma.
    • Psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the multidimensional assessment of interoceptive awareness (MAIA-2) questionnaire in a non-clinical sample of Arabic-speaking adults

      Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Malaeb, Diana; Fawaz, Mirna; Soufia, Michel; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; et al. (2023-08-09)
      Background: Interoception refers to processes through which the nervous system identifies, analyzes, and integrates the information generated by the physiological state of the body (e.g., from internal organs such as the stomach, heart, or lungs). Despite its potential interest for clinical research and its wide use globally, no Arabic adaptation and validation of the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA-2) questionnaire exists to date. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the MAIA-2 in a sample of Arabic-speaking community adults from Lebanon. We hypothesized that the Arabic version of the MAIA-2 would yield adequate internal consistency coefficients; the 8-factor structure model would show a good fit to our data, with measurement invariance and good convergent validity. Method: The Arabic adaptation of the MAIA-2 was developed using the forward-backward translation method. A non-clinical sample of Arabic-speaking adults (n = 359, 59.9% females, mean age = 22.75 years (SD = 7.04)) took part of this validation study. To check if the model was adequate, several fit indices were calculated: the normed model chi-square (χ²/df), the Steiger-Lind root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), the Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) and the comparative fit index (CFI). Values ≤ 3 for χ²/df, and ≤ 0.08 for RMSEA, and 0.90 for CFI and TLI indicate good fit of the model to the data. Results: Confirmatory Factor Analyses corroborated the validity of the original 8-factor structure of the MAIA-2 [χ2/df = 1603.86/601 = 2.67, RMSEA = 0.068 (90% CI 0.064, 0.072), SRMR = 0.058, CFI = 0.903, TLI = 0.892]. Reliability estimates in our sample revealed good internal consistency, with McDonald's ω coefficients for the subscales ranging from 0.86 to 0.93. Our analyses also revealed measurement invariance of the Arabic MAIA-2 for gender. No statistically significant difference between men and women in all dimensions, except for the not worrying and attention regulation subscales where men scored significantly higher than women. Finally, the Arabic MAIA-2 dimensions showed positive correlations with the intuitive eating dimension "Reliance on Hunger and Satiety Cues", thus providing support for convergent validity. Conclusion: We contribute the literature by providing the first Arabic adaptation and validation of a measure assessing the multidimensional construct of self-reported interoception. The Arabic MAIA-2 demonstrated good psychometric properties. We thus preliminarily recommend its use to measure the interoceptive awareness construct among Arabic-speaking communities worldwide.
    • Psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the Nine Item Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Screen (NIAS) in a community sample of adults

      Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Hallit, Rabih; Malaeb, Diana; Sawma, Toni; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; et al. (2023-08-23)
      Background: No epidemiological data is yet available on Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in Arab countries, which may in part be due to the lack of measures available in Arabic language. This constitutes a major obstacle to further progress of our understanding of the nature, aetiology, course, treatment, and prevention of ARFID, especially as some evidence suggested that ARFID may vary across cultures and food environments. We aimed to contribute to the literature in the eating disorders field by examining the psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the Nine Item ARFID Screen (NIAS). Method: This was a cross-sectional, web-based study. A total of 515 Lebanese community adults (mean age of 27.55 ± 10.92 years, 69.9% females) participated. The forward-backward method was adopted to translate the NIAS from English to Arabic. Results: Confirmatory Factor Analyses provided evidence for the adequate fit indices for the three-factor model (i.e., Picky eating, Fear, and Appetite) and the 9-item version of the NIAS. An adequate reliability of the Arabic NIAS was achieved, with McDonald's ω ranging from .75 to .90 for the total score and all three subscores. Multi-group analyses demonstrated measurement invariance by sex (males vs. females) and weight groups (underweight/healthy weight [BMI ≤ 25] vs. overweight/obese [BMI > 25]) at the configural, metric, and scalar levels. Adequate patterns of correlations between the NIAS and measures of disordered eating symptoms, psychological distress and well-being were seen. In particular, fear was significantly associated with non-ARFID disordered eating symptoms. Appetite and Picky eating, but not Fear, were inversely correlated with well-being. All three NIAS subscores and the total score were positively correlated with psychological distress. Conclusion: Findings provided evidence that the Arabic NIAS is a short, valid and reliable self-report measure to screen for ARFID symptoms. In light of these findings, we recommend its use for clinical and research purposes among Arabic-speaking adults.
    • Psychometric properties of the Arabic versions of the Three-Item Short Form of the modified Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS-3) and the Muscularity Bias Internalization Scale (MBIS)

      Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; He, Jinbo; Malaeb, Diana; Hallit, Rabih; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; et al. (2023-05-23)
      Background: There is a lack of psychometrically sound measures to assess internalized weight and muscularity biases among Arabic-speaking people. To fill this gap, we sought to investigate the psychometric properties of Arabic translations of the Three-Item Short Form of the Modified Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS-3) and the Muscularity Bias Internalization Scale (MBIS) in a sample of community adults. Methods: A total of 402 Lebanese citizens and residents enrolled in this cross-sectional study (mean age: 24.46 years (SD = 6.60); 55.2% females). Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted using the principal-axis factoring and oblimin rotation to estimate parameters and the parallel analysis to determine the number of factors. CFA was conducted using the weighted least square mean and variance adjusted estimator which was recommended for ordinal CFA. Results: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the WBIS-3 resulted in a robust single-factor solution for the three items. An examination of the factorial structure of the MBIS revealed a two-factor structure, which showed adequate model fit. We obtained excellent internal consistency as indicated by McDonald's ω coefficients of .87 for the WBIS-3 total score and ranging between .92 and .95 for the MBIS two factor scores. Cross-sex invariance of the MBIS was confirmed at the configural, metric, and scalar levels. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations between the WBIS-3 and MBIS. Divergent and concurrent validity were approved by showing small to medium correlations between MBIS/WBIS-3 scores and muscle dysmorphia, disordered eating symptoms, and body image concerns. Conclusion: Findings suggest that the Arabic versions of the WBIS-3 and MBIS are suitable for use in Arabic-speaking adults.
    • Psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) in a sample of community adults

      Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Jiang, Chen; Obeid, Sahar; Malaeb, Diana; Meng, Runtang; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; et al. (2023-04-01)
      Background: There is a growing attention on intuitive eating (IE) styles in the Western world that has not yet reached Arab countries, which is likely due to the lack of psychometrically sound measures of the IE construct for Arabic-speaking people. The current study aims to examine the psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the most widely used measure of IE-the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2), in an Arabic-speaking community population from Lebanon. Methods: Two samples of Arabic-speaking community adults from Lebanon (sample 1: n = 359, 59.9% females, age 22.75 ± 7.04 years; sample 2: n = 444, 72.7% females, age 27.25 ± 9.53 years) were recruited through online convenience sampling. The translation and back-translation method was applied to the IES-2 for linguistic validation. Factorial validity was investigated using an Exploratory Factor Analysis & Confirmatory Factor Analysis strategy. Composite reliability and sex invariance were examined. We also tested convergent and criterion-related validity through correlations with other theoretically plausible constructs. Results: Nine out of the original 23 items were removed because they either loaded below 0.40 and/or cross-loaded too highly on multiple factors. This resulted in four domains (Unconditional Permission to Eat, Eating for Physical Rather than Emotional Reasons, Reliance on Hunger and Satiety Cues, and Body-Food Choice Congruence) and 14 items retained. Internal reliability estimates were excellent, with McDonald's ω values ranging from 0.828 to 0.923 for the four factors. Multigroup analysis established configural, thresholds, metric, scalar, strict invariance across gender. Finally, higher IES-2 total scores were significantly correlated with lower body dissatisfaction scores and more positive eating attitudes, thus attesting to convergent and criterion-related validity of the scale. Conclusions: The current findings provide preliminary evidence for the appropriate psychometric qualities of the Arabic 14-item, four-factor structure IES-2; thereby supporting its use at least among Arabic-speaking community adults.
    • Psychometric properties of the Problematic Use of Social Networks (PUS) scale in Arabic among adolescents

      Obeid, Sahar; Gonzalez-Nuevo, Covadonga; Postigo, Alvaro; Azzi, Vanessa; Malaeb, Diana; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; et al. (2023-09-14)
      Background: The Problematic Use of Social Networks (PUSN) scale assesses for the first time the comparative use of social networks along with addictive tendencies. However, it has only been validated in a Spanish sample. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the PUSN (PUSN-Ar) among Lebanese adolescents. Methods: A total of 379 adolescents aged between 15 to 18 years (M = 16.07 years; 64.9% females) participated in this cross-sectional study conducted between January and May 2022. The problematic use of social networks-SNS (PUSN) scale yields of two subscales: addiction-related consequences of SNS use (SNS-ARC) and negative social comparison (SNS-NSC). The Beirut Distress Scale, the Smartphone Addiction Scale and the Jong-Gierveld Loneliness Scale were used to assess psychological distress, smartphone addiction and loneliness respectively. Results: The PUS-Ar scale exhibited a two-dimensional structure (Comparative Fit Index [CFI] = .97; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation [RMSEA] = .08), consistent with the original scale. Both subscales, Negative Social Comparison (α = .96) and Addictive Consequences (α = .92), demonstrated excellent reliability. Additionally, measurement invariance was verified between males and females at the configural, metric and scalar levels. No significant difference was found between males and females in terms of SNS-NSC (20.75 ± 10.15 vs 21.09 ± 9.51; t(377) = -.32; p = .751) and SNS-ARC (19.08 ± 8.61 vs 19.76 ± 6.77; t(377) = -.79; p = .430). The SNS-ARC subscale was more correlated to smartphone addiction than the SNS-NSC (r = .73; p < .001 vs r = .54; p < .001) whereas both subscales were significantly associated with more stress and more loneliness. Conclusion: The data collected in this study provided support for all the hypotheses formulated. Consequently, the PUS-Ar was deemed a suitable scale to measure problematic SNS among Lebanese adolescents. The PUS-Ar is currently available to researchers for use in evaluating PSNSU in Lebanon. However, it is important to note that further research is needed to explore its applicability and generalizability across different populations and contexts.
    • Validation of the Arabic version of the brief irritability test (Ar-BITe) in non-clinical adolescents

      Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Azzi, Vanessa; Hallit, Rabih; Malaeb, Diana; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; et al. (2023-09-26)
      Background: Despite the substantial clinical relevance of irritability in the development and maintenance of several mental disorders and its negative effects on functioning, no valid and reliable measures are available yet to identify the presence and consequences of irritability as a distinct construct among the Arabic-speaking populations. To bridge this gap, and help advance this field in the under-researched Arab region, we aimed to validate an Arabic-language version of the Brief Irritability Test (BITe). Methods: Eligible participants were native Arabic-speaking non-clinical adolescents from Lebanon; 527 participants aged 15.73 ± 1.81 years (56% females) completed the survey. Results: Utilizing the Confirmatory Factor Analysis approach, we found that the five items of the Arabic BITe loaded into a single factor structure. The scale showed excellent reliability, as both Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega coefficient values were of 0.88. Multi-group analyses showed invariance across sex groups in our sample at the configural, metric, and scalar levels. Female adolescents exhibited higher BITe scores than their male counterparts (14.01 vs. 13.25), but this difference did not reach the statistical significance. Good concurrent validity was supported based on positive correlations between irritability scores and measures of aggression, anger and hostility (r Pearson's coefficients ranging from 0.35 to 0.42), as well as positive correlations with insomnia symptoms scores. Conclusion: The present findings allow us to conclude that the Arabic version of the BITe is a unidimensional, reliable, valid, brief, and economic self-report measure of the irritability construct for both male and female Arabic-speakers. Providing an Arabic validated version of the BITe will hopefully foster the research efforts of the Arab scientific community in this area, and promote the implementation of timely, evidence-informed and culturally-sensitive mental health interventions that appropriately address irritability-related problems and consequences among Arab young populations.
    • Psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the brief version of the difficulty in emotion regulation scale (DERS-16)

      Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Kanj, Gaelle; Obeid, Sahar; Hallit, Souheil; External Collaboration; NA; 0; 0; Psychology; 0; et al. (2023-03-15)
      Background: The current study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of an Arabic translation of the short form of the Difficulty in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS-16) in an Arabic-speaking population-based adult sample in Lebanon. In particular, the factorial structure, composite reliability, convergent validity and gender invariance were investigated. Methods: A total of 411 Lebanese adult participants (mean age of 32.86 ± 11.98 years, 75.4% females) took part of this cross-sectional web-based study. The forward and backward translation method was applied. Results: Findings revealed good internal consistency of the Arabic DERS-16 total scale and five subscales (McDonald's ω ranging from 0.81 to 0.95). Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the five-factor solution of the scale and demonstrated strong measurement invariance across gender at the configural, metric, and scalar levels. No significant differences were found in all DERS-16 domains between men and women participants. Finally, the DERS-16 scores and sub-scores showed strong correlations with the Borderline Personality Questionnaire (r > .40), thus indicating its convergent validity. Conclusion: Overall, the present findings suggest that the Arabic version of the DERS-16 may be a reliable and valid self-report measure that assesses ER difficulties as a multidimensional construct. Making the Arabic version of the DERS-16 available will hopefully strengthen its utilization for clinical and research purposes to benefit the millions of Arabic-speaking people worldwide.