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  • Impact of Introversion and Extroversion on Psychological Wellbeing of University Student during Covid-19

    Saeed, W.; Kouser, s; Hanif, R.; External Collaboration; NA; nil; nil; Psychology; nil; Saeed, W. (Sir Syed College of Education Katlang Mardan, 2022-12-01)
    The present study investigated the impact of personality disposition, introversion and extroversion on psychological well-being of university students during Covid-19. The study also aimed at finding the gender differences in psychological wellbeing during pandemic. The study included 200 participants (100 males, 100 females) recruited from different universities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The age range of participants in this study was 18-28. Statistical findings of the study revealed that introversion have significantly positive impact on psychological well-being during Covid-19. Furthermore, there was no significant gender difference in psychological well-being during Covid-19. The present study is beneficial for academicians, policy makers and social welfare programmers to design students-friendly policies keeping in view personality differences so that students’
  • Writing and Reviewing Scientific Papers: A Priority for Teaching Professionals

    Saeed, W.; External Collaboration; NA; Nil; nil; Psychology; nil; Saeed, W. (Institute of Psychological Research, 2021-12-28)
  • Relationship of Emotional Intelligence and Academic Burnout with Mediating Effect of Self-efficacy among University Students.

    Saeed, W.; Zafar, N.; Hanif, R.; External Collaboration; NA; nil; nil; Psychology; nil; Saeed, W. (Institute of Psychological Research, 2022-12-31)
    The present study investigated the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and academic burnout with a self-efficacy’s (SE) mediating effect among university students. A cross sectional research design was used in this study which was carried out in Karachi from September 2018 to January 2019. The sample involved 400 full time regular university students from different academic institutions in Karachi, Pakistan. The participants ranged in age from 16 to 25 years (M=21.28, SD=2.12). Participants were given the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale, the Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Academic Burnout Scale to investigate the association between a student's emotional intelligence, academic self-efficacy, and academic burnout. The descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis were used to compute the results. The findings show that emotional perception, emotional use, emotional self-management, and managing emotions with others were identified as the significant predictors of academic self-efficacy. It was determined that emotional intelligence and academic self-efficacy played a significant influence in preventing academic burnout among undergraduate students. Students with high levels of emotional stability perform better academically, which is influenced by emotional intelligence. Through developed curricula, trainings, exercises, and awareness sessions, educational institutions may create a variety of strategies to sustain not just students' academic performance but also their ability to operate normally in daily life. Academic administrators can readily manage students' academic burnout if they focus on these factors.
  • Financial strain, Covid-19 anxiety and suicidal ideation among wage worker during the pandemic crisis 2019

    Saeed, W; Khan, S. T.,; Bhat, M. A.,; External Collaboration; NA; Nil; Nil; Psychology; Nil; Saeed, W (Sage Publications, 2023-11-10)
    The global lockdowns owing to the Covid-19 pandemic have sparked attention in the relationship between financial strain, anxiety and suicidal thoughts among wage workers in India, the worst hit. This study was inspired by the lack of data on wage labourers’ financial strain, Covid-19 anxiety and suicidal ideation during the pandemic. This study is supported by the General Strain Theory, which states that economic or financial stress causes dissatisfaction, sadness and anxiety, which can lead to suicide ideation (Agnew, 1992). Wage labourers from Jammu and Kashmir (India) in the informal sector were studied. However, the sample frame was unavailable. Thus, the researchers used convenience sampling to choose respondents from all Kashmir valley districts. Questionnaire item count determined sample size. According to Hair et al. (1998), the sample size should be 10 times the questionnaire items. A sample of 395 wage workers was selected. Path analysis showed that financial strain causes suicidal ideation and anxiety (Covid-19), while wage workers’ worry leads to suicidal ideation. Financial stress and suicidal ideation are partially mediated by anxiety (Covid- 19). These findings imply wage workers take specific steps to improve themselves and prepare for future crises like Covid-19. The survey found wage employees were hardest harmed by the pandemic. This experience shows that government, non-government organizations and religious communities are necessary and supportive. The government should provide food security and health insurance to wage earners in emergencies. For schemes, compensation and other benefits, the government should help workers to register with labour and employment organizations.
  • Is There a Link Between Green Human Resource Management and Consumer Buying Behavior? The Moderating Role of Employee Diffidence

    iao, Y; Younus, R; Saeed, W.; Ul Haq, J; Li, X; External Collaboration; NA; Nil; nil; Psychology; et al. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022-06-17)
    Green Human Resource Management (HRM) supports promoting and incorporating sustainable development with regard to their resources. Managers and customers actively utilize the limited resources efficiently and effectively to accomplish environment friendly goals and objectives. The study focuses on investigating the moderating role of diffidence between Green HRM, among eco-friendly behavior and Employee Performance of frontline employees of the hospitality sector. Two hundred ten individuals particapted in the research from hospitality sector with regard to examine green HRM policies of employees along with their influence on consumer buying behvaiour. Frontline employees incorporated the data on HRM performance, eco-friendly behavior, and diffidence. Besides, consumers gave their opinion on consumer buying behavior. The study’s findings revealed that Green HRM, aka Green HRM, directly impacts consumer behavior. In addition to this diffidence moderates the relationship between Green HRM and employee performance and employee eco-friendly behavior. Besides, future studies can explore the clothing and banking sector as the current study was conducted in fast food sector
  • Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Among University Students After the COVID-19 First Wave in Pakistan

    Saeed, W.; Irfan, S; Zafar, N.; Cheema, F; External Collaboration; NA; Nil; nil; Psychology; nil; et al. (IRASD, 2021-12-11)
    COVID-19, the worst public health emergency in a decade, has had a profound impact on people's mental health. Universities in Pakistan have reopened, although it is uncertain how to prevent secondary damage to students as a result of the reopening. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among students following the reopening of universities after the COVID-19 first wave. Furthermore, gender differences in depression, anxiety, and stress were also investigated, as well as the predictive value of CGPA in depression, anxiety, and stress. The sample was (N=360) university students. Data was collected from the two cites of Pakistan. The DASS-21 was used to assess levels of depression, anxiety, and stress among students (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995). SPSS version 21 was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that the level of psychological distress has increased among university students due to the reopening of universities. Findings revealed significant differences in depression and anxiety levels based on the three academic disciplines. In addition, male students showed significantly higher levels of depression, anxiety and stress than female students and CGPA significantly and negatively predicted depressionand stress. Based on the findings of this study, it is suggested that thorough and targeted psychological interventions for students' mental health should be established, particularly in high-risk cities and during the COVID-19 pandemic late phases
  • The Relationship between Employee Attitude Toward Change and Organizational Commitment: The Moderating Role of Psychological Defense Mechanisms

    Saeed, W.; Amin, R; Khizar, U; Irfan, S; External Collaboration; NA; Nil; nil; Psychology; nil; et al. (enter for Sustainability Research and Consultancy Pakistan, 2021-09-30)
    The purpose of this research was to determine which defense mechanisms can help to regulate the link between attitude toward change and organizational commitment. Psychological defenses are characterized as protective processes that help individuals maintain their integrity in the face of threat and danger. Previously, extant research has mainly emphasized organizational issues while individual psychological factors have remained largely ignored. Therefore, this paper seeks to investigate the moderating effects of psychological defense mechanisms on the relationship between employee attitude toward change and organizational commitment.
  • Quality of Life as a Predictor of Psychological Distress and Self Esteem among Prisoners

    Saeed, W.; Irfan, S; Nawab, S; Amtullah; External Collaboration; NA; Nil; nil; Psychology; nil; et al. (Center for Sustainability Research and Consultancy Pakistan, 2021-09-30)
    One of the most vulnerable areas for poor mental health is prisons. This study was conducted to investigate whether quality of life predicts psychological distress and self-esteem among prisoners as well as to look at any gender differences that might exist. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study utilized a correlational design carried through the survey method. A purposive sampling technique was used to collect the data from prisoners. The sample (N=200) included 100 male and 100 female prisoners. The sample was selected from Lahore, Faisalabad, Sahiwal, and Gujranwala jails. The age range of the participants was 20 to 50 (M = 38.12, SD=6.50). Data was collected through validated questionnaires. Findings: Regression analysis indicates quality of life as a significant negative predictor of psychological distress and significant positive predictor of self-esteem. Compared to female prisoners, male prisoners have higher self-esteem and a better quality of life. Female prisoners have higher levels of psychological distress than male prisoners. Implications/Originality/Value: These findings highlight the need to improve mental health services in prisons.
  • Online Consumer Satisfaction During COVID-19: Perspective of a Developing Country

    Saeed, W.; Rao, Y; Saleem, A; Haq, J.U.; External Collaboration; NA; Nil; nil; Psychology; nil; et al. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-10-01)
    A conceptual model based on the antecedents and consequences of online consumer satisfaction has been proposed and empirically proved in this study. Data were collected during Smart Lockdown of COVID-19 from 800 respondents to observe the difference between perceived and actual, and direct and indirect e-stores. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to observe the validity of the data set. The structural equation modeling technique was used to test the hypotheses. The findings indicated that consumers feel more satisfied when they shop through direct e-store than indirect e-store, whereas their perception and actual experience are different. Implications have also been added to the study.
  • A comparative study of school organizational health in Punjab. Pakistan Journal of Society, Education and Language

    Saeed, W.; Tufail, S; Irfan, S; Khizar, U; External Collaboration; NA; Nil; nil; Psychology; nil; et al. (JEHAN FOUNDATION, 2021-12)
    Schools are the most important organizations of any society. A conducive learning environment of school helps learners to enhance their skills because they spend a lot of time in school under the supervision of teachers. This study seeks to compare public and private secondary school teachers' perceptions of their school's organizational health. School organizational health was studied under the four dimensions (goal focus, communication adequacy, resource utilization, and cohesiveness). Demographic variables of sector, gender and district were also examined.This study applied a quantitative research approach to conduct the survey. The sample consisted of 250 teachers from different schools in Punjab province.Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. Findings revealed significant differences in public and private secondary schoolteachers' perceptions of four sub-factors of school organizational health. Findings also showed significant differences in teachers’ perceptions based on all demographic variables. These intriguing findings may have ramifications for future research and school reforms
  • Psychometric evaluation of terrorism anxiety scale.

    Saeed, W.; Zafar, N.; Irfan, S; External Collaboration; NA; Nil; nil; Psychology; nil; Saeed, W. (RESEARCH OF SOCIAL SCIENCES (SMC-PRIVATE) LIMITED, 2021-11-14)
    The study investigated the psychometric parameters of the Terrorism Anxiety Scale (TAS) (Zafar et al., 2020) to verify and maintain the norms of a reliable and valid assessment measure. The survey method was used to collect TAS responses from teenagers aged 13 to 19 in Lahore, Karachi, Sahiwal, Haveli Lakhan, and Gujranwala. The sample was drawn using a convenient sampling strategy. The reliability and validity of the scale were assessed by using confirmatory factor analysis that utilized structural equation modeling. The model was refined and modified utilizing the structural equation modeling technique, which gave construct validity standards for the twofactor TAS model, substantial test-retest reliability, and acceptable model fit indices. Internal consistency was also found to be extremely significant. The findings confirmed the construct's high reliability as well as moderate convergent and discriminant validity norms. The construct validity of the model may be revised in future studies involving larger samples from all regions of Pakistan to achieve a high degree of generalizability
  • Relationship of Muslim Religiosity and Death Anxiety with the Mediating Effect of Optimism and Depression Among Cancer Patients

    Saeed, W.; Abbas, Q; Kanwal, U; Khan, U. M.; Shahzadi, M.; Faran, M.; External Collaboration; NA; Nil; nil; et al. (2021-04)
    Optimism and the practice of any religion are known to reduce depression and anxiety in cancer patients. In the present study, the specific role of Muslim religiosity, optimism, depression, and death anxiety in cancer patients has been explored. The sample of this study consisted of 200 cancer patients from different hospitals of the districts Faisalabad and Lahore (Pakistan). The sample's average age was 26.6 years. Parallel mediation findings show that optimism and depression are significant mediators between Muslim religiosity and death anxiety among cancer patients. Muslim religiosity is positively associated with optimism, and it helps to decrease the level of death anxiety, while depression is negatively associated with Muslim religiosity, and high depression increases the death anxiety level of cancer patients. In conclusion, Muslim religiosity and optimism play significant roles in managing depressive symptoms and death anxiety among cancer patients.
  • The Impact of Language Barrier in Work Related Stress in Non – Arabic Workers

    Merdad, Nesma; Amanulla, Ayesha; Psychology
    In today’s globalized society, it is common for people from different backgrounds to be working under the same company. Studies show that employees experience higher levels of stress when operating in a second language. However, there is not a lot of research that looks into language-related stress that may be faced by workers in Saudi Arabia who are not familiar with the national language. This study uses qualitative methods to understand their experience with the Arabic language specifically if they experience any stress related to language ability. Six participants who were working in Effat University were selected using convenience sampling and were interviewed. This study showed that the workers had mostly beginner level of proficiency in Arabic and experienced stress during meeting, when understanding written material and while speaking with colleagues who were not fluent in English. The participants also shared some factors that prevents them from improving the ability in Arabic. This study shows the importance of language related classes in helping to mitigate language barriers in multinational workplaces.
  • The Stigma of Mental Health in Arab Culture vs. Western Culture

    Merdad, Nesma; Saeed, Leena; Psychology
    The mental health stigma has become a part of social turmoil since the inception of modern generation of humans. However, the division among people is still existed on the topic of mental health stigma. The aim of this research is providing a difference between Western and Arab cultures on the perspective of mental health stigma by analyzing how social and cultural norms impact behavior of individuals and how they take serious and treatment of mental health. In this study, the research will examine the role of cultural norms of Western and Arab cultures where how people view and reaction on mental health. Western culture has a higher level of social acceptance and the range of accessible treatments of mental health. Mental health and psychological disorder is considered and treated in well manner by mental health professional. However, Arab culture faces mental health stigma and abstain from mental health care and even want to confidential their mental health. This research must be conducted to analysis the particular effects of mental health stigma on individuals in Arab and Western communities. We can immediately response and confront it and provide people awareness and counselling of mental health by identifying the main causes of the stigma. This will make mental health is more widely accepted and reduce the social stigma of mental health, they are suffering from it, will disappear.
  • The Impact of the Quran and Music on Anxiety Levels

    Merdad, Nisma; Wali, Maimounah; Psychology
    Calm music has been used to treat mental health problems and has been incorporated into relaxation techniques to treat psychological issues as supported by the research in mental health. The holy Quran is a holy book in Islam and has been used by Muslims for its healing properties. This quantitative study focused on exploring the effect of listening to the Quran versus calm music on anxiety levels. The current study measured the anxiety levels of participants by using Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Thirty-six individuals participated in the current study and were divided into two groups, the Music Group (n=20) who listened to a five minute audio of calm music, and the Quran group (n=16) who listened to a five-minute audio of Surat Yusuf. Anxiety levels were measured by administering questionnaires. For analysis of the results, paired sample t-test and independent sample t-test were applied. Within group difference results showed that Quran and music are both effective in decreasing anxiety levels. However, between-group differences, it was found that post-audition anxiety levels of people who listened to the Quran were lower than people who listened to music. There were no significant differences in the results of previous experiments with listening to music and listening to the Quran. This shows that the Quran has healing properties and may be effective for therapeutic techniques. The impact of listening to the Quran may be further explored in future studies with different areas of other mental health problems.
  • Can Nurturing a Houseplant Promote College Students' Mental Wellbeing?

    Merdad, Nisma; Rozi, Fatima; Psychology
    Agricultural research proves that adding indoor plants into personal spaces can have multiple benefits to people physically and mentally. And numerous other studies have been conducted on the prevalence of mental health issues in college students. This experimental study aimed to explore the effects of nurturing a houseplant on college students’ depressive mood, stress, and motivation levels. The participants were 12 Effat university students from the psychology department. They were randomly divided into a control group and a study group who were given plants to nurture for six weeks. The results indicated no statistically significant difference in change in scores of depression, stress, and motivation in pre, mid, and post-intervention. If future studies with a larger, more enhanced design could confirm the positive effects of plants on college students’ mental wellbeing, plants could be used as a support system for college students on universities scale.
  • Perspectives on Mental Health Problems, Mental Healthcare, and Quality of Life for People Living in Areas of Crisis.

    Merdad, Nisma; Alfadhel, Orjuwan; Psychology
    This study aims to explore mental health (e.g. depression and PTSD) as well as the quality of life for people living in or coming from areas of crisis. The study also linked these mental health variables and quality of life (QoL) with access to mental healthcare; as well as QoL with receiving mental healthcare. The research also aims qualitatively to discover healthcare workers’ perspective about access to mental healthcare, treatment methods, barriers to seeking therapy and number of beneficiaries in those countries. Studies have shown that individuals in Yemen, Sudan, and Syria have been facing recurrent exposure to stress, loss, and trauma, resulting in severe mental health difficulties and reduction in QoL. Common mental disorders prevalent among those exposed to war and conflict include PTSD and depression. Limited access to mental healthcare exacerbates the situation, affecting people’s mental health and QoL. The study employed a mixed methods approach. PCL-5, PHQ-9, and WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires are used for PTSD, depression, and quality of life among 118 Syrian, Yemen, and Sudan adults. Semi structured interviews were conducted with 3 healthcare workers to explore access to mental healthcare, treatment methods, and number of beneficiaries. Over 52.5% exhibited high PTSD risk, and 55% showed moderate to severe depression symptoms. More than half lacked mental healthcare access, and most hadn't received prior care. There were significant differences in mental health disorders and QoL with the accessibility to mental healthcare. There was no significant difference in QoL between those who received mental healthcare and those who did not. Thematic analysis identified two master themes: access to mental healthcare and barriers to seeking therapy.
  • The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Children Anxiety Disorders Among Children aged six to twelve years in The Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    Jaber AlGhalib, Dr Saddiga; Alhussini, Lama; Psychology
    purpose: the aim of this research is to examine the relationship between parenting styles and children's anxiety disorders among children aged six to twelve years in the western region of Saudi Arabia. The lack of research in Saudi Arabia and the inconsistent findings in the literature was the motivation for the researcher to examine this relationship. Methods: A cross-sectional design is used to collect the data. An online questionnaire was distributed with the following tools: SCARED and PCDQ. The data was analyzed using SPSS. Results: The researcher has found that the authoritarian (M = 3.62, SD = .46). and Permissive (M = 2.93, SD =.82) parenting styles were statistically significant in predicting child anxiety. Authoritative (M = 3.62, SD = .46) was found to be a insignificant predictor of childhood anxiety.
  • The Impact of Growing up in a Polygamous Family on Adult’s Current Self Esteem and Level of Stress

    Merdad, Nisma; Alamoudi, Eman; Psychology
    Studies show that adults who grow up in polygamous families have a higher rate of mental health challenges, including elevated stress levels and diminished self-esteem. However, there are no studies investigating their relations with parents, siblings, and step siblings. Aim: This research aims to determine the relationship between growing up in polygamous families and the level of self-esteem and stress in adults while also investigating how these experiences may influence adults’ relationships with parents and siblings. Methods: A total of 104 participants in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia were recruited through voluntary participation, and they were assessed using the Rosenburg self-esteem scale and the Perceived stress scale. Results: Adults from polygamous families exhibited slightly higher self-esteem, but also experienced elevated stress levels compared to those from monogamous families. Additionally, adults from Polygamous families reported poorer relationships with both parents and siblings compared to their counterparts in monogamous families. Implications: This study stresses the significance of employing family therapy and parenting workshops to contribute and help address these relational challenges and improve communication, understanding, and overall family bonds and cohesion.

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