Effat Undergraduate Research Journal (EURJ) is a peer-reviewed, open access, interdisciplinary journal committed to publishing original research articles by undergraduate students from all universities globally. EURJ covers a wide range of academic disciplines such as natural sciences & engineering, humanities and social sciences. EURJ aims to encourage student research activities by showcasing and providing a forum for exchange of research ideas and to collaborate with peers. It also provides a platform to publish research papers reporting innovative methods, practical applications and/or improvements and bold new research.

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  • Smart Sprinkler System for Water Conservation

    A. Johar, Rana; Deanship of Graduate Studies and Research (Effat University, 2020)
    One of the main problems facing modern cities is water scarcity. The increasing level of water wastage in the i r r igat ion system is an alarming problem. According to the 2030 vision, a reduction in water wastage is sought. This represents a strong motivation to create a simple device to achieve water efficiency. Home sprinkler water flow systems do not take into consideration the current state of the surroundings, which lead to high wastage of water. In this research paper, a conceptual smart travelling sprinkler composed of a water pump and a motion motor is proposed. The suggested circuit design includes sensors that are capable of detecting soil conditions, such as moisture level and object proximity. The device power is provided by a s o l a r panel that is c o n n e c t ed to the water tank, which incorporates a level indicator. A series of push b u t t o n s and LCDs can be integrated for control purpose. The desired objective is the reduction of water consumption, and this brings us one-step closer to achieving the 2030 vision.
  • First Demonstration of Orange-yellow Light Emitter Devices in InGaP/ InAlGaP Laser Structure Using a Strain-induced Quantum Well Intermixing Technique

    A. Alnahhas, Layan; Deanship of Graduate Studies and Research (Effat University, 2020)
    In this paper, a novel strain-induced quantum well intermixing (QWI) technique is employed on an InGaP/InAlGaP material system to promote interdiffusion via application of a thick-dielectric encapsulant layer, in conjunction with cycle annealing at elevated temperature. With this technique, we demonstrate the first yellow superluminescent (SLD) at a wavelength of 583nm with a total two-facet output power of ~4.5mW—the highest optical power ever reported at this wavelength in this material system. The demonstration of the yellow SLD without complicated multiquantum barriers to suppress the carrier overflow will have a great impact in realizing the yellow laser diode that cannot be grown with conventional methods.
  • Traditional Domestic Architecture in Al-Baha Region

    M. Baabdullah, Renad; Deanship of Graduate Studies and Research (Effat University, 2020)
    Al-Baha region embraces rich area of inherited Saudi traditional architecture that is highly threatened of perishing, and poorly documented, including a UNESCO world heritage site at Zee Ain Village. In this research paper, different urban fabric patterns of Al-Baha’s villages, and building techniques of stone houses are explained and analyzed in relation to the thoroughly discussed contextual conditions. The research clarifies how the environmental and sociocultural context shapes traditional domestic units. Preliminary plans and digital models have been developed for case studies that required more precise interpretation; fulfilling the documentary goal, and the interpretive approach of the research.
  • The Effect of Service Quality and Switching Barrier on Customer Loyalty: A Study of Saudi Mobile Telecommunication Services

    Ghazi Bamatraf, Yomen; Deanship of Graduate Studies and Research
    The Saudi mobile telecommunication services industry is currently facing lots of complaints, criticism and dissatisfaction from their customers regarding the quality of services, and customer loyalty may be in question. The industry is reportedly shifting its strategic focus away from attracting new customers towards keeping existing customers. The present study examined the relationship between service quality and customer loyalty, as well as between switching barriers and customer loyalty among a sample of 271 users of telecommunication services from Jeddah. A survey consisting of the Customer Loyalty Scale, the Service Quality Scale, and the Switching Barriers Scale, and some demographic related questions was used to collect the data. The results showed that there is a relationship between service quality and customer loyalty, however, no significant relationship was found between switching barriers and customer loyalty. The results are discussed in the light of current literature of customer loyalty and quality of services.
  • Relationship between Beliefs about the Functions of Dreams and Dream Attitudes: An Exploratory Study in Saudi Arabian Cultural Milieu

    Al-Quaiti, Sanaa; Deanship of Graduate Studies and Research (2020)
    Research on beliefs and attitudes towards dreams has been conducted across the world among different populations ; however, a very limited number of these researches involve Arab samples. The purpose of this research is to explore the relationship between the beliefs about the function of dreams and the attitudes towards dreams. The sample is comprised of 200 adult participants of both genders from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The participants were asked to respond to a survey comprising of the items of two different scales: Revised Dream Attitudes and Olsen’s list of Beliefs about the Function of Dreams, electronically via social media websites and applications. Results indicated a significant relationship between the beliefs about the function of dreams and dream attitudes. However, no significant differences were found between age, gender and beliefs about dreams. The results are discussed in the context of various dream theories and thei implications in clinical and other settings. Further investigations exploring the significance and relationship of dreams with physical and psychological health, emotional states, etc., among varied samples in the Arab cultures are recommended.
  • Effects of CCK or TCK on Developing Children’s Language Acquisition and Personal Experience

    Abudawood, Rawan; Balahmar, Rawan; Deanship of Graduate Studies and Research (2020)
    This paper focuses on the way in which children’s language and personal experience develop when they are identified as Cross-Cultural Kids (CCKs) or Third Culture Kids (TCKs). Globalization played a role in increasing the number of CCKs and TCKs. As a result, many research papers have discussed this issue. However, most research papers were discussing the issue negatively, focusing on lack of patriotism, and stability, while ignoring the privileges these children have, such as developing their personality and language acquisition. The paper has a mixed method of research as the data was collected through face interviews and a survey on Facebook undertaken by CCKs and TCKs. Results showed that despite the fact that CCKs and TCKs faced many challenges, they have gained unique personal experience, tolerance to different cultures and advanced language acquisition. It seems that the advantages of being a CCK/TCK are more than the disadvantages, which can be overcome later. As a result, further research must look at the benefits and privileges rather than temporary problems.
  • Stress and Coping Strategies among Saudi Working Women

    Alghamdi, Enas; Deanship of Graduate Studies and Research (Effat University, 2020)
    Coping strategies sufficiently impact the psychological well-being. Stress may cause depression in many cases. The presence of depression negatively affects physical and cognitive well-being, as participants who demonstrated higher levels of depression were found to be more likely to show physical decline. Women around the world and especially in Saudi Arabia are asked to face challenges to cope with their daily stress of professional life. Much research has been done on the relationship between coping strategies, personality traits, and work stress. But not much research has been done to investigate the relationship between work stress in women and their coping strategies. The aim of this research is to investigate the relationships between stress and various coping strategies of Saudi working women. This study was done by the quantitative method, with participants being given the Coping Orientation Problem Experienced Inventory and Perceived Stress Scale. The results of these questionnaires were analyzed through the statistical analysis. program SSPS. Main findings showed a positive correlation between stress and self-distraction, denial, humor, and self-blame. A negative correlation was found between stress and active coping, emotional support, and acceptance. Furthermore, the findings show that stress correlates positively with emotional coping strategies and negatively with problem-focused strategies.
  • The Desire of Dependence on Men and the Justification of Sexism: An Exploratory Study of Saudi Females

    Althobaiti, Amal; Deanship of Graduate Studies and Research (2020)
    This research explores the prevalence of the desire of dependence on men among Saudi women in Jeddah and its relationship to the justification of sexism. A number of Saudi women living in Jeddah (N=179) responded to the Desire of Dependence on Men Scale, which was developed for this study. To measure the degree of justification of sexism, the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick & Fiske, 1996) was also distributed to respondents online. Showing a desire of dependency on men among Saudi women was expected, in addition to finding a significant relationship between the two suggested variables. In this study, respondents showed no significant score of desire of dependence on men, however, women in the age group of 45 -54 showed a significant score a b o v e t h e m e a n . A significant correlation between the desire of dependency on men and a benevolent justification of sexism was also found. The sample has also shown a significant score in benevolent sexism and an average score in hostile sexism.