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  • English-Arabic Cultural Effect in Translation: A Relevance Theory Perspective

    Khuddro, Ahmad; Department Collaboration; English & Translation; Hussain, Alaa Eddin (European American Journals, 2016-01)
    This study is framed within a competence-oriented model which provides the target text (TT) receiver with communicative clues. These clues allow inference to be optimally captured. Hence, this approach looks at translation as an example of communication mainly based on the cost and effect model of inferencing and interpretations. Strategies adopted in this paper are determined by context-specific consideration of relevance, with special reference to cultural aspects. Applied to translation, one of the most appropriate strategies is to re-produce the cognitive effect intended by the source text (ST) communicator with the lowest possible effort on the part of the TT receiver. This study concludes that when there is a lack of isomorphism or symmetry between the cultural contents of the two languages, the translator will have to opt for content-cognitive effect or cultural transplantation. The translator would have to assess the relevance of content and form in a specific context in order to achieve the same effect in the TT. It has been emphasized, however, that translation as a special instance of human communication leads to the conclusion that various methods may be justified in their own right, if we take into consideration the differences in the text-types, the intention of the author, readership, and the purpose of translation. In a nutshell, however, translation remains a craft which requires not just training and skill but also continually renewed linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge, considerable imagination as well as intelligence and common sense, and most of all talent.
  • Audiovisual English-Arabic Translation: De Beaugrande's Perspective

    Khuddro, Ahmad; Department Collaboration; English & Translation; Hussain, Alaa Eddin (Australian International Academic Centre PTY.Ltd. Sydney, 2016-05)
    This paper attempts to demonstrate the significance of the seven standards of textuality with special application to audiovisual English Arabic translation. Ample and thoroughly analysed examples have been provided to help in audiovisual English-Arabic translation decision-making. A text is meaningful if and only if it carries meaning and knowledge to its audience, and is optimally activatable, recoverable and accessible. The same is equally applicable to audiovisual translation (AVT). The latter should also carry knowledge which can be easily accessed by the TL audience, and be processed with least energy and time, i.e. achieving the utmost level of efficiency. Communication occurs only when that text is coherent, with continuity of senses and concepts that are appropriately linked. Coherence of a text will be achieved when all aspects of cohesive devices are well accounted for pragmatically. This combined with a good amount of psycholinguistic element will provide a text with optimal communicative value. Non-text is certainly devoid of such components and ultimately non-communicative. Communicative knowledge can be classified into three categories: determinate knowledge, typical knowledge and accidental knowledge. To create dramatic suspense and the element of surprise, the text in AV environment, as in any dialogue, often carries accidental knowledge. This unusual knowledge aims to make AV material interesting in the eyes of its audience. That cognitive environment is enhanced by an adequate employment of material (picture and sound), and helps to recover sense in the text. Hence, the premise of this paper is the application of certain aspects of these standards to AV texts taken from various recent feature films and documentaries, in order to facilitate the translating process and produce a final appropriate product.
  • Subtitling in Arabic

    Khuddro, Ahmad; College Collaboration (2000)
    This paper deals with the Arabic translation of different tv scripts, including links, voice overs, soundbites, etc. The nature of these tests dictates the style in the target language.
  • Practical Approaches to English/Arabic Audiovisual Translation

    Khuddro, Ahmad; College Collaboration; English & Translation; Hussain, Alaa Eddin (2016-02)
    This article aims to establish the factors that the translator needs to be aware of in audiovisual translation (AVT) and to show when, how and in what context to mediate in this domain. The article is divided into two parts: The first part discusses what AVT is and shows the fundamental difference between two of its main components: voice-overs and subtitles along with similar aspects particularly in voice-over target text to those in simultaneous interpreting. This difference is either overlooked or misunderstood by theorists in the audiovisual field. The second part of the article shows what the translator might do when presented with audiovisual source text (ST) material that has some factual or logical errors which would inevitably reflect badly on the producer/translator of the target text (TT), and who might be blamed for such obvious errors by the target audience, even though it is not a fault of his/hers but rather a flaw of the ST. Finally, it must be noted here that this article is written from the point of view of an academic as well as a practitioner in the field for almost two decades.
  • الترجمة المتخصصة: قضايا نظرية ووجهات نظر تشغيلية

    Khuddro, Ahmad; College Collaboration; English & Translation; غريغو, كيم (Sibawayh, 2019)
    بداية لابد من ِذكر الهدف الرئيس من ترجمة هذا الكتاب الترجمة المتخصصة، ومؤلفته الإيطالية المولد الدكتورة كيم غريغو، من اللغة اإلنكليزية إلى اللغة العربية، وهذا الهدف هو إطالع المهتمين في الترجمة وطلبة الترجمة على فرع مهم للغاية من فروع الترجمة، ألا وهو الترجمة ي المتخصصة، حيث يتناول الكتاب هذا الموضوع بأسلوب تحليل عميق ويطلع القارئ الخبير والقارئ العادي على ميزات الترجمة المتخصصة وعلى عناصرها التي يجب أخذها بعين الاعتبار أثناء القيام بهذا النوع من الترجمة، وهذه العناصر هي معجمية أو نحوية أو نصية، أو مرتبطة بالميدان المتخصص أو بالغرض المرجو من الترجمة. ويـبين فكرة هذا الكتاب أيضا أننا عندما َنقول "ترجمة" قد نقصد بها النص أو العمليّة أو الممارسة. كما يقدم الكتاب بعض الطرق المساعدة في فهم الترجمة المتخصصة والنص المصدر والنص الهدف.
  • Philip Lark’s Poem (translated into Arabic) with comments

    Khuddro, Ahmad; College Collaboration; English & Translation (Cairo, 1992)
    A translation of the poem with commentary on the poem in Arabic.
  • Arabic-English Syntax in Translation: At Word and Sentence Levels

    Khuddro, Ahmad; College Collaboration; English & Translation
    This book is designed for all English/Arab students whose major is translation. The aim is to introduce students to English translation through their comprehension of the Arabic syntax, therefore, help them to understand how to think and translate into English. No theoretical concepts in translation studies are discussed here, the reason is to give way to practice because it is through practice that students learn best how to translate any text and not just through theories which are in abundance. But when it comes to applying them, they fail to assist students and professionals to learn properly the skill of a good translator, and cannot be implemented fully as tool to produce a cohesive and coherent target text that can be acceptable by the reader and fully informative and contextually correct in its situationality. That is with no translation loss semantically and with the same meaning and effect as the source text – though the ST might sound sometimes incomprehensible in the first instance to the translator. Theories in translation, though applicable in part every now and then, are by no means totally helpful in the marketplace – that is, outside the university campuses. Readers of this book need to be armed with the basics in English grammar and syntax, in order to follow how the meaning of each word, phrase or sentence is translated.
  • Translating Business English into Arabic, (2nd edition)-2019

    Khuddro, Ahmad; College Collaboration; English & Translation
    The purpose of this book is to train and guide students and junior translators in order to set up their own translation strategy which will facilitate their task and make their translation most appropriate as well as enjoyable as an experience and not just a boring mechanical task. The book shows that some serious issues in translation are related to the propositional meaning, that is when the meaning or content is ‘inaccurate’, either true or false, as Mona Baker explains in her book In other words, 1992. Other serious issues are lexical, related to the choice of vocabulary or lexis; syntactical and grammatical, mainly related to the structure and function of both the source language (SL) or the target language (TL). All initial translations (TT1s) in this book have errors, which are actually made by either students or junior translators. These errors are syntactic, lexical or semantic. The final translations (TT2s) are prepared by the author of the book and can be considered as most appropriate end-products. It is worth noting that all TT2s have at times been corrected versions of TT1s with some additional nuances which give the end-products excellence over the initial earlier versions. These nuances are not fully discussed due to limited space and time, only major corrections or re-workings of the TT1s are debated.
  • Linguistic Issues and Quality Assessment in English-Arabic Audiovisual Translation

    Khuddro, Ahmad; College Collaboration; English & Translation (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2018)
    This book examines the linguistic issues the author himself has encountered first hand in Arabic subtitling; this is followed by quality assessment of subtitlers and subtitling. The author, who is both a practitioner and an academic with a relatively long experience in the Arabic–English audiovisual field that stretches over three decades, makes this book valuable and offers potential solutions to various issues encountered in Arabic AVT in particular. As a result of the quality assessment of new subtitlers, the book proposes a new model in subtitling that can be applied to dubbing. Although the purpose of this book is to investigate English–Arabic subtitling in depth, its perspective can be broadened to include dubbing and indeed the general discussion of AVT that requires alignment with the norms of the TL—the way the ST has been aligned with its language norms. Another significant and rarely discussed yet fresh and novel point in this discipline is that the translation of drama texts is not dissimilar to AVT, particularly subtitling.
  • Girls of Riyadh Revisited: Investigating the Quality of the English Collaborative Translation of Rajaa Alsanea’s Arabian Novel

    Khuddro, Ahmad; College Collaboration; English & Translation (AWEJ, 2023-02-24)
    The paper aims to assess the quality of the English collaborative translation of Rajaa Alsanea’s Arabian novel Girls of Riyadh, focusing on linguistic and cultural features of the Target Text, a few of which are sometimes nonexistent in the Source Text. The mixed literal/functional approach to collaborative translation seems to be inconsistent, the paper observes, and it is possibly due to both the apparent tension between the self-translator and her co-translator Marilyn Booth and the prominence of the target culture sometimes recurrent in the Source Text. The paper addresses two questions: To what extent has collaborative translation affected the quality of rendering linguistic, social, and cultural references of the Source Text, such as idiomatic expressions, lexical terms, songs, names of celebrities, religious, and literary references, and traditional festivities? How effective have the literal and functional approach been in this collaborative translation? The findings of this study show that the translation procedures employed, such as omission, addition, and alteration, are sometimes unacceptable. Significantly, the study raises awareness about how the potential tension between the self-translator and the co-translator in the inclusion and exclusion of certain parts of texts can affect the quality of the end product. This paper recommends a fresh ‘critical translation’ of the ST that fills specific points which has been overlooked in the current ‘simple translation’: i.e., by paying attention to the message and intention of the author and suggesting to the use of different procedures by the two translators. The paper recommends that instead of implementing erratically two opposite approaches, the functional and literal approaches, as has been done, collaborative translators should follow one of them only. The current study suggests potential solutions to improve the quality of the English translation of this novel.
  • Media Translation - TV in particular - English-Arabic

    Khuddro, Ahmad; College Collaboration; English & Translation (King Fahed Academy, Tangiers - Alsaadi University., 1997)
    تتناول المقالة الترجمة التلفزيونية من الإنكليزية إلى العربية.
  • The Common Reader, 1st Series of Literary Articles by Virginia Woolf (translated book), 2020.

    Khuddro, Ahmad; College Collaboration; English & Translation (Noor Publishing, 2020)
    يتكون هذا الكتاب المترجم من مجموعة مقالات للأديبة فيرجينيا وولف نشرتها في مجلد العام 1925، وقامت الأديبة بتسليط الضوء على أعمال أدباء بارزين وآخرين مغمورين. تبرز أهمية الكتاب في أنه عمل نقدي لهؤلاء الأدباء بقلم أديبة معروفة في الأدب الانكليزي الحديث، كما أنها علقت في الكتاب على إحدى المسرحيات في العصر الإليزابيثي وتناولت المقالة الحديثة والرواية الحديثة. والجدير بالذكر أنه يندر أن نجد آراء أدبية مشهورة في أدباء إغريق وفرنسيين وانكليز وغيرهم، من تشوسر إلى جاين أستون وديفو وجوزيف كونراد.
  • Analysis-of-certain-issues-identified-in-the-translation-of-the-darcula-novel

    Khuddro, Ahmad; Al-Harbi, Jawaher; English & Translation
    This senior seminar project is about the novel Dracula (1897). this novel is chosen based on my passion for exotic, interesting and most popular literary works in English. The writer of this novel is Bram Stoker, and the translators of this novel are international languages home company. The novel is described in English as a vampire legend and has become the basis for an entire genre of literature and film. Generally, the study discusses certain issues faced while reading the translation of the novel, and how they were analysed and can be fixed.
  • Analysis of Subtitling Issues: The Case Study of ‘Saif Al-Arab’ Play

    Khuddro, Ahmad; Albernawi, Rola; English & Translation
    The purpose of this research is to apply and investigate the English subtitling of the iconic Kuwaiti drama production ‘Saif Al-Arab’ (‘The Sword of Arab’), how to use the techniques, methods, and strategies of translation in this subtitling, and what issues one encounters in subtitling. The audience who watches this subtitled work are English native speakers who live mostly in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Also, this study attempts to discuss some translated words in the target text (TT) and to decide which of them is the best to choose from, based on equivalence, readability, and acceptability. Finally, this research is to discuss how to solve certain subtitling errors using some effective methods in this field, so the audience can read .the subtitles clearly, watch the work and understand the message
  • Arabic - English Syntax in Translation: Equivalence at Word and Sentence Levels

    Khuddro, Ahmad; College Collaboration; Select your Lab; (Al Manhal, 2013)
    This book is designed for all English/Arab students whose major is translation. The aim is to introduce students to English translation through their comprehension of the Arabic syntax, therefore, help them to understand how to think and translate into English. No theoretical concepts in translation studies are discussed here, the reason is to give way to practice because it is through practice that students learn best how to translate any text and not just through theories which are in abundance. But when it comes to applying them, they fail to assist students and professionals to learn properly the skill of a good translator, and cannot be implemented fully as tool to produce a cohesive and coherent target text that can be acceptable by the reader and fully informative and contextually correct in its situationality. That is with no translation loss semantically and with the same meaning and effect as the source text though the ST might sound sometimes incomprehensible in the first instance to the translator.
  • Practical Approaches to English/Arabic Audiovisual Translation

    Khuddro, Ahmad; Hussain, Alaa Eddin; English & Translation (2016)
    This article aims to establish the factors that the translator needs to be aware of in audiovisual translation (AVT) and to show when, how and in what context to mediate in this domain. The article is divided into two parts: The first part discusses what AVT is and shows the fundamental difference between two of its main components: voice-overs and subtitles along with similar aspects particularly in voice-over target text to those in simultaneous interpreting. This difference is either overlooked or misunderstood by theorists in the audiovisual field. The second part of the article shows what the translator might do when presented with audiovisual source text (ST) material that has some factual or logical errors which would inevitably reflect badly on the producer/translator of the target text (TT), and who might be blamed for such obvious errors by the target audience, even though it is not a fault of his/hers but rather a flaw of the ST. Finally, it must be noted here that this article is written from the point of view of an academic as well as a practitioner in the field for almost two decades.