Safe haven property of gold and cryptocurrencies during COVID-19 and Russia-Ukraine conflict
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AbstractDuring recent years the world has witnessed several unprecedented crises that affected the international financial markets. Indeed, the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russia–Ukraine conflict caused major perturbations that slowed down the economic and financial development around the globe. International investors are switching their attention to more reliable assets as a refuge to their portfolios. This paper investigates the hedge and safe haven properties of gold and major cryptocurrencies, mainly Bitcoin and Ethereum. Empirical analysis is conducted on main fiat currencies using the multivariate asymmetric dynamical conditional correlation model. Results show that gold has a superior hedging effectiveness compared to cryptocurrencies. Moreover, the precious metal and the digital currencies are safe havens for almost all fiat currencies.
Journal titleAnnals of Operations research