Automated Categorization of Multiclass Welding Defects Using the X-ray Image Augmentation and Convolutional Neural Network
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AbstractThe detection of weld defects by using X-rays is an important task in the industry. It requires trained specialists with the expertise to conduct a timely inspection, which is costly and cumbersome. Moreover, the process can be erroneous due to fatigue and lack of concentration. In this context, this study proposes an automated approach to identify multi-class welding defects by processing the X-ray images. It is realized by an intelligent hybridization of the data augmentation techniques and convolutional neural network (CNN). The proposed data augmentation mainly performs random rotation, shearing, zooming, brightness adjustment, and horizontal flips on the intended images. This augmentation is beneficial for the realization of a generalized trained CNN model, which can process the multi-class dataset for the identification of welding defects. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by testing its performance in processing an industrial dataset. The intended dataset contains 4479 X-ray images and belongs to six groups: cavity, cracks, inclusion slag, lack of fusion, shape defects, and normal defects. The devised technique achieved an average accuracy of 92%. This indicates that the approach is promising and can be used in contemporary solutions for the automated detection and categorization of welding defects.
DepartmentElectrical and Computer Engineering