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  • Enhanced the Hosting Capacity of a Photovoltaic Solar System Through the Utilization of a Model Predictive Controller

    M. Mourad Mabrook; A. A. Donkol; A. M. Mabrouk; Hussein, Aziza; Mohamed Barakat; External Collaboration; NA; NA; NA; Electrical and Computer Engineering; et al. (IEEE, 2024-04-23)
    The global expansion of solar-powered within distribution networks with Low Voltage (LV) is experiencing substantial expansion. Despite the various advantages offered by solar photovoltaic generation, surpassing the constraints on Hosting Capacity (HC) within these networks persist a significant technical problem in system operation, especially in relation to voltage operation. This research delves into the effectiveness of improving the Hosting Capacity (HC) of a photovoltaic (PV) system within an LV distribution system. It utilizes a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) to achieve this enhancement and contrasts its performance with reactive power control. The study examines scenarios encompassing both linear and non-linear loads to assess the impact of these control strategies on the PV system’s harmonic current in the LV distribution network. Through detailed analysis, the MPC controller demonstrates superior adaptability and responsiveness, maintaining stable active power at 95.5 kW before accommodating a 100% PV system penetration and experiencing a substantial increase to 192 kW. The hosting capacity, thereby, sees a notable 101.05% improvement under MPC control. Additionally, the study reveals that MPC optimizes reactive power utilization, resulting in a 17.9% reduction in reactive power and an 18.3% enhancement in bus voltage compared to reactive power control. Notably, MPC exhibits superior adaptability to both linear and non-linear loads, emphasizing its potential as an effective solution for optimizing the performance of PV systems within LV distribution grids. This research underscores the significance of advanced control strategies in facilitating the integration of renewable energy systems while ensuring grid stability and reliability.
  • Anwendung von Wavelet-Zerlegung und maschinellem Lernen für die sEMG-Signalbasierte Gestenerkennung

    Fatayerji, Hala Rabih; Saeed, Majed; Mian Qaisar, Saeed; Alqurashi, Asmaa; Al Talib, Rabab; External Collaboration; Artificial Intelligence & Cyber Security Lab; 3; 3; Electrical and Computer Engineering; et al. (Springer, 2024-06)
    In German Language: Amputierte auf der ganzen Welt haben begrenzten Zugang zu hochwertigen intelligenten Prothesen. Die korrekte Erkennung von Gesten ist eine der schwierigsten Aufgaben im Kontext der Entwicklung von auf Oberflächen-Elektromyographie (sEMG) basierenden Prothesen. Dieses Kapitel zeigt eine vergleichende Untersuchung mehrerer auf maschinellem Lernen basierender Algorithmen zur Identifizierung von Handgesten. Der erste Schritt im Prozess ist die Datenerfassung aus dem sEMG-Gerät, gefolgt von der Merkmalsextraktion. Anschließend werden zwei robuste maschinelle Lernalgorithmen auf den extrahierten Merkmalsatz angewendet, um ihre Vorhersagegenauigkeit zu vergleichen. Die mittlere Gaußsche Support Vector Machine (SVM) funktioniert unter allen Bedingungen besser als der K-nearest neighbor. Verschiedene Parameter werden für den Leistungsvergleich verwendet, darunter F1-Score, Genauigkeit, Präzision und Kappa-Index. Die vorgeschlagene Methode zur Erkennung von Handgesten, basierend auf sEMG, wird gründlich untersucht und die Ergebnisse haben eine vielversprechende Leistung gezeigt. In jedem Fall kann ein Fehlverhalten bei der Merkmalsextraktion die Erkennungsgenauigkeit verringern. Die tiefgreifenden Lernmethoden werden verwendet, um eine hohe Präzision zu erreichen. Daher berücksichtigt das vorgeschlagene Design alle Aspekte bei der Verarbeitung des sEMG-Signals. Das System sichert eine höchste Klassifizierungsgenauigkeit von 92,2 % für den Fall des Gaußschen SVM-Algorithmus.
  • "Fiction to Function" Shaping Renewable Energy Education with MATLAB and ChatGPT-Driven Environments

    Kabbaj, Narjisse; Brahimi, Tayeb; Babiker, Safia; Aldybous, Alaa; Department Collaboration; Energy Lab; 4; 0; Electrical and Computer Engineering; 0; et al. (IEEE, 2024-03-21)
    Addressing the gap in effective and engaging renewable energy education, this study, 'Fiction to Function,' transitions imaginative frameworks into practical educational tools, focusing on solar and wind energy in line with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The goal is to empower users with deep insights into renewable energy through the novel integration of MATLAB and ChatGPT-driven environments, enhancing the analysis and exploration of these energy sources. The study employs a structured approach using MATLAB App Designer to develop a user-friendly GUI, aligning instructional content with the SDGs and integrating ChatGPT via the OpenAI API for dynamic, interactive learning experiences. This integration provides a multifaceted platform that not only educates but also engages users in practical scenarios, bridging the gap between theoretical knowledge and real-world application. The results demonstrate an enhanced understanding of renewable energy concepts among users, showcasing the efficacy of combining MATLAB's analytical capabilities with ChatGPT's AI-driven guidance. Ultimately, the study highlights the transformative potential of innovative technology in sustainable energy education, setting a precedent for future educational tools in this domain.
  • Gehirn-Computer-Schnittstelle (BCI), basierend auf der EEGSignalzerlegung, Schmetterlingsoptimierung und maschinellem Lernen

    Alghamdi, Mawadda; Mian Qaisar, Saeed; Bawazeer, Shahad; Saifuddin, Faya; Saeed, Majed; External Collaboration; Artificial Intelligence & Cyber Security Lab; 4; 4; Electrical and Computer Engineering; et al. (Springer, 2024-06)
    In German Language: Die Gehirn-Computer-Schnittstelle (BCI) ist eine Technologie, die Menschen mit Behinderungen hilft, Hilfsgeräte zu bedienen, indem sie neuromuskuläre Kanäle umgeht. Diese Studie zielt darauf ab, die Elektroenzephalographie (EEG) Signale zu verarbeiten und diese Signale dann durch Analyse und Kategorisierung mit Maschinenlernalgorithmen in Befehle zu übersetzen. Die Ergebnisse können weiterhin zur Steuerung eines Hilfsgeräts verwendet werden. Die Bedeutung dieses Projekts liegt in der Unterstützung von Menschen mit schweren motorischen Beeinträchtigungen, Lähmungen oder denen, die ihre Gliedmaßen verloren haben, um unabhängig und selbstbewusst zu sein, indem sie ihre Umgebung kontrollieren und ihnen alternative Kommunikationswege bieten. Die erworbenen EEG-Signale werden digital mit einem Tiefpass gefiltert und dezimiert. Anschließend wird die Wavelet-Zerlegung zur Signalanalyse verwendet. Die Merkmale werden aus den erhaltenen Unterbändern abgebaut. Die Dimension des extrahierten Merkmalsatzes wird durch Verwendung des Butterfly-Optimierungsalgorithmus reduziert. Der ausgewählte Merkmalsatz wird dann von den Klassifikatoren verarbeitet. Die Leistung des k-Nearest Neighbor, der Support Vector Machine und des Artificial Neural Network wird für die Kategorisierung von motorischen Imagery-Aufgaben durch Verarbeitung des ausgewählten Merkmalsatzes verglichen. Die vorgeschlagene Methode sichert eine höchste Genauigkeitsbewertung von 83,7 % für den Fall des k-Nearest Neighbor-Klassifikators.
  • Fortschritte in Der Nicht-Invasiven Biomedizinischen Signalverarbeitung Mit ML

    Mian Qaisar, Saeed; Nisar, Humaira; Subasi, Abdulhamit; College collaboration; External Collaboration; Artificial Intelligence & Cyber Security Lab; 0; 0; Electrical and Computer Engineering; 0; et al. (Springer, 2024-06)
    In German Language: Dieses Buch stellt die modernen technologischen Fortschritte und Revolutionen im biomedizinischen Sektor vor. Fortschritte in der zeitgenössischen Sensorik, dem Internet der Dinge (IoT) und bei Maschinenlernalgorithmen und -architekturen haben neue Ansätze im mobilen Gesundheitswesen eingeführt. Eine kontinuierliche Beobachtung von Patienten mit kritischer Gesundheitssituation ist erforderlich. Sie ermöglicht die Überwachung ihres Gesundheitszustandes während alltäglicher Aktivitäten wie Sport, Gehen und Schlafen. Dank moderner IoT-Rahmenbedingungen und drahtloser biomedizinischer Implantate, wie Smartphones, Smartwatches und Gürtel, ist dies realisierbar. Solche Lösungen befinden sich derzeit in der Entwicklung und in Testphasen durch Gesundheits- und Regierungsinstitutionen, Forschungslabore und biomedizinische Unternehmen. Die biomedizinischen Signale wie Elektrokardiogramm (EKG), Elektroenzephalogramm (EEG), Elektromyographie (EMG), Phonokardiogramm (PCG), bei chronisch-obstruktiver Lungenkrankheit (COP) und Elektrookulographie (EoG), Photoplethysmographie (PPG), Positronenemissionstomographie (PET), Magnetresonanztomographie (MRI) und Computertomographie (CT) werden nicht-invasiv erfasst, gemessen und über die biomedizinischen Sensoren und Gadgets verarbeitet. Diese Signale und Bilder repräsentieren die Aktivitäten und Zustände des menschlichen kardiovaskulären, neuralen, visuellen und zerebralen Systems. Eine Mehrkanalerfassung dieser Signale und Bilder mit einer angemessenen Granularität ist für eine effektive Überwachung und Diagnose erforderlich. Sie erzeugt ein großes Datenvolumen, und seine Analyse ist manuell nicht machbar. Daher sind automatisierte Gesundheitssysteme in der Entwicklung. Diese Systeme basieren hauptsächlich auf der Erfassung und Sensorik von biomedizinischen Signalen und Bildern, Vorverarbeitung, Merkmalsextraktion und Klassifizierungsstufen. Die zeitgenössischen biomedizinischen Signal-Sensorik, Vorverarbeitung, Merkmalsextraktion und intelligente maschinelle und tiefgreifende Lernalgorithmen für die Klassifizierung werden beschrieben.
  • Energy-efficient architecture for high-performance FIR adaptive filter using hybridizing CSDTCSE-CRABRA based distributed arithmetic design: Noise removal application in IoT-based WSN

    Mohammed, Abdul Majid,; Raghavendra, D. Kulkarni; External Collaboration; Electronics Lab; 0; 0; Electrical and Computer Engineering; 0; Charles, Rajesh Kumar (elsivier, 2024-07-01)
    An energy-efficient architecture of high-performance FIR adaptive filter design using approximate distributed arithmetic (DA), which is integrated with canonic signed digit-based triangular common sub expression elimination (CSDTCSE) and carry-resist adder based Booth recorder adder (CRABRA) is proposed for noise removal in sensor nodes. Distributed arithmetic is coupled with two signed 32-bit, 16-bit radix-8 Booth algorithms and approximate computation under 2-bit adder to design FIR adaptive filter for decreasing partial products (PP) together with accumulation circuits. The truncation of LSB in the PP is presented to approximate the PP to reduce memory complexity and hardware overhead. An approximation recoding adder decreases the energy usage, area, and critical path. Approximate Wallace trees are applied to the PP accumulation to lessen the latency. The canonic signed digit-based triangular common sub-expressions elimination framework is proposed, which significantly reduces a count of logic operators and logic depth in implementing the FIR filter. The proposed algorithm is activated in Verilog coding and synthesized using Xilinx 14.5 ISE simulation software. The proposed design successfully reduces delay, area, and power by maintaining better accuracy with performance.
  • Prediction of Adsorption and Desorption Isotherms for Atmospheric Water Harvesting

    F. El-Amin, Mohamed; Department Collaboration; Energy Lab; 0; 0; Master of Science in Energy Engineering; 0; Kabbaj, Narjisse (IEEE, 2024-03-21)
    This study improves the mathematical modeling for the potential of atmospheric water harvesting (AWH) using desiccant materials. This research is crucial in highlighting the sustainable water management strategies of AWH systems in converting atmospheric moisture into a vital water source. The primary focus of our research methodology was the analytical derivation of sorption isotherms, essential for the hygrothermal simulation of desiccant materials. This was accomplished through the application of two established models, namely, the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) and Van Genuchten (VG). Experimental data on various anhydrous salts from existing literature have been used. An in-depth comparative analysis of these models reveals that the VG model aligns more closely with the experimental data, thus asserting its superiority in enhancing the selection and efficiency of desiccant materials in AWH systems. By confirming the VG model’s superiority in accurately modeling sorption isotherms, our research not only improves the model of AWH systems but also, importantly, contributes to the development of advanced water harvesting technologies.
  • Integrating Human-Centricity, Sustainability, and Resilience in Digital Twin Models for Industry 5.0 : A Multi-Objective Optimization Approach

    Bezoui, Madani; Slama, Ilhem; Bounceur, Ahcene; Mian Qaisar, Saeed; Hammoudeh, Mohammad; Turki Almaktoom, Abdulaziz; University Collaboration; External Collaboration; Artificial Intelligence & Cyber Security Lab; 0; et al. (2024)
    This paper presents the InduDesc framework, an innovative digital twin model within the CupCarbon software, designed for the advanced needs of Industry 5.0. It integrates human-centred ergonomics, sustainability and resilience into the Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem (FJSP), traditionally an NP-hard challenge. By minimising operating times and balancing machine utilisation with ergonomic and sustainability considerations, the framework provides a dynamic workload management tool based on real-time 'fatigue' metrics. Using a tabu search algorithm, InduDesc generates a Pareto frontier to help decision makers identify strategies that efficiently align with the integrated goals of Industry 5.0.
  • Physics‐based and data‐driven approaches for lifetime estimation under variable conditions: Application to organic light‐emitting diodes

    Mohammed, Abdul Majid,; Sara, Helal; Ahmed, BenSaïda; Fidaa, Abed; Mohamed, F. El-Amin; Omar, Kittaneh; University Collaboration; Electronics Lab; 0; 1; et al. (2024-03-04)
    The prognosis of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) not only requires early detection of a bearing defect, but also the capability to predict their life data under all operational scenarios. The use of sophisticated machine learning (ML) algorithms is undoubtedly becoming an increasingly exciting research direction, as these algorithms can yield high predictive models with minimal domain expertise. The central question of this perspective is: how well can ML models advance our ability to forecast the lifetime of OLEDs compared to the physics-based models? In this paper, data-driven methods, feed-forward neural networks (FFNN), support vector machines (SVMs), k-nearest neighbors (KNNs), partial least squares regression (PLSR), and decision trees (DTs), are used to predict the lifetime and reliability of OLEDs through analyzing the lumen degradation data collected from the accelerated lifetime test. The final predicted results indicate that both the data-driven and our physics-based OLED lifetime models fit well the experimental data. The main drawback of the former method is that their efficacy is highly contingent on the quantity and quality of the operational dataset. Among all these methods, much more reliability information (time to failure) and the highest prediction accuracy can be achieved by FFNN.The prognosis of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) not only requires early detection of a bearing defect, but also the capability to predict their life data under all operational scenarios. The use of sophisticated machine learning (ML) algorithms is undoubtedly becoming an increasingly exciting research direction, as these algorithms can yield high predictive models with minimal domain expertise. The central question of this perspective is: how well can ML models advance our ability to forecast the lifetime of OLEDs compared to the physics-based models? In this paper, data-driven methods, feed-forward neural networks (FFNN), support vector machines (SVMs), k-nearest neighbors (KNNs), partial least squares regression (PLSR), and decision trees (DTs), are used to predict the lifetime and reliability of OLEDs through analyzing the lumen degradation data collected from the accelerated lifetime test. The final predicted results indicate that both the data-driven and our physics-based OLED lifetime models fit well the experimental data. The main drawback of the former method is that their efficacy is highly contingent on the quantity and quality of the operational dataset. Among all these methods, much more reliability information (time to failure) and the highest prediction accuracy can be achieved by FFNN.
  • Battery Management System for Enhancing the Performance and Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Mohammed, Abdul Majid,; Salma, Badaam; Arbaz, Ahmed; Haya, Binsalim; Department Collaboration; Energy Lab; 1; 1; Electrical and Computer Engineering; 0; et al. (IEEE, 2024-01-16)
    Battery packs integrated into the grid offer a promising solution for energy storage, but their efficient operation requires precise monitoring and control, which is achieved through Battery Management Systems (BMS). This paper proposes a temperature-dependent second-order RC equivalent circuit model to reflect the battery’s dynamic characteristics accurately. Then, a novel BMS design, incorporating Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF), a constant current-constant voltage (CCCV) charging, and a passive balancing algorithm to estimate the battery state of charge (SOC), balance voltage levels, and monitor thermal characteristics. The research also includes a comprehensive simulation study conducted in SIMULINK with the Simscape toolbox to assess the effectiveness of the analyzed BMS. The simulation results demonstrate the effictiveness of the proposed BMS design in monitoring the battery pack’s state, maintains cell balancing, estimates SOC, and keeps the temperature and current levels within safe limits. This model can help guide a more efficient and accurate BMS design for future studies.
  • Bayesian Optimization Algorithm for ConvLSTM-AE model To Forecast Solar Irradiation

    Boussetta, Mohammed; Bendali, Wadie; Morad, Youssef; Motahhir, Saad; Krichen, Moez; Mian Qaisar, Saeed; External Collaboration; Artificial Intelligence & Cyber Security Lab; 0; 0; et al. (IEEE, 2024-03-21)
    As much as the development of smart grid systems, accurate and reliable solar irradiance is crucial. In smart grid systems, forecasting solar irradiance remains a vital solution to mitigate the best management of energy.This study presents a new approach using a hybrid deep learning model, Conv-LSTM-AE, enhanced by Bayesian algorithm optimization. In four seasons of the years, the model was evaluated based on the accuracy using different metrices errors, and time computing in training. The model exhibits exceptional adeptness as compared to other deep learning models, showing that the Conv-LSTM-AE with Bayesian optimization is a standout performer with remarkable accuracy. This development represents a substantial step towards utilizing state-of-the-art technology for the efficient use of solar power within intelligent grid systems.
  • Rechargeable Battery State Estimation Based on Adaptive-Rate Processing and Machine Learning

    Alyoucef, Afnan; Mian Qaisar, Saeed; Hafsi, Meriem; Department Collaboration; External Collaboration; Energy Lab; 0; 1; Electrical and Computer Engineering; 1; et al. (IEEE, 2023)
    The generalization of the use of electronic systems and their integration in industrial systems and different aspects of modern life (internet of things, electric vehicles, robotics, smart grids), give rise to new challenges related to the storage and optimized management of energy. Lithium-on batteries perfectly meet this objective due to their good qualities such as high energy density, small installation size, low self-discharge and high supply capacity. However, their wide application requires further research on battery failure prediction and health management. Intelligent “battery management systems” (BMSs) employ the real-time estimation and control algorithms to improve the battery safety while enhancing its performance. Nevertheless, BMS are complex and require increased processing power which could lead to more power consumption. In this context, the present article provides a new approach for efficient prediction of the “Lithiumion” (Li-ion) battery cells capacities by analysing and exploiting the battery parameters, acquired by an event-driven module. It acquires the intended cells voltages, currents and temperature values during the charge-discharge cycles. The solution is based on the machine learning algorithms and event-based segmentation. The “National Aeronautics and Space Administration” (NASA) has provided a high-power Li-Ion cells dataset for the purpose of research and innovation. This dataset is used to test and evaluate the suggested approach. The evaluation of the overall performance of the chain has shown encouraging results of the proposed approach.
  • Model Predictive Control of Consensus-based Energy Management System for DC Microgrid

    Syed, Umaid Ali; Waqar, Asad; Aamir, Muhammad; Mian Qaisar, Saeed; Iqbal, Jamshed; External Collaboration; Energy Lab; 0; 0; Electrical and Computer Engineering; et al. (Plos, 2023-01-20)
    The increasing deployment and exploitation of distributed renewable energy source (DRES) units and battery energy storage systems (BESS) in DC microgrids lead to a promising research field currently. Individual DRES and BESS controllers can operate as grid-forming (GFM) or grid-feeding (GFE) units independently, depending on the microgrid operational requirements. In standalone mode, at least one controller should operate as a GFM unit. In grid-connected mode, all the controllers may operate as GFE units. This article proposes a consensus-based energy management system based upon Model Predictive Control (MPC) for DRES and BESS individual controllers to operate in both configurations (GFM or GFE). Energy management system determines the mode of power flow based on the amount of generated power, load power, solar irradiance, wind speed, rated power of every DG, and state of charge (SOC) of BESS. Based on selection of power flow mode, the role of DRES and BESS individual controllers to operate as GFM or GFE units, is decided. MPC hybrid cost function with auto-tuning weighing factors will enable DRES and BESS converters to switch between GFM and GFE. In this paper, a single hybrid cost function has been proposed for both GFM and GFE. The performance of the proposed energy management system has been validated on an EU low voltage benchmark DC microgrid by MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation and also compared with Proportional Integral (PI) & Sliding Mode Control (SMC) technique. It has been noted that as compared to PI & SMC, MPC technique exhibits settling time of less than 1μsec and 5% overshoot.
  • Design of receiver RF front end for mm-Wave 5G applications

    Hussein, Aziza; Nora Alamoudi; Mirna Ali; Ahmed Zakaria; M. Mourad Mabrook; External Collaboration; NA; 1; 1; Electrical and Computer Engineering; et al. (IEEE, 2024-03-21)
    Recently, the research emphasis has shifted towards 5G due to its potential to accommodate the increasing demand for data traffic, extensive interconnectivity of devices, and the emergence of numerous novel applications. Given the inadequacy of speed provided by spectrum resources in the lower frequency bands of 5G, a novel sub-generation utilizing millimeter wave frequencies has been introduced. The new sub-generation is called mm-wave 5G and provides higher bandwidth for faster speed and higher capacity. RF system architecture, circuits, and antenna innovation will be required to provide the requisite speed and capacity. In this paper the design challenges and trade-offs in RF front-end circuits and receiver sub-systems are discussed. Moreover, the massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques are examined. In addition, design, and simulation of key components in 5G mm-wave receiver, including the design of linear phased array antenna receiver and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is presented. Sigma-Delta (ΣΔM) Converters are a type of ADC with a technique that involves oversampling and shaping quantization noise to achieve a higher resolution which make it a best choice to be used in the design of the mm wave 5G communication applications. The proposed ΣΔM uses multistage architecture to provide high-order noise shaping and high resolution. The simulation results shows that the designed Cascade 2-2 MASH ΣΔ achieve a signal to noise ratio of 110(resolution of 16 bits).
  • Accurate Classification of Cervical Cancer Based on Multi-layer Perceptron Hunger Games search Optimization technique

    Rabab Hamed M. Aly; Hussein, Aziza; Rasha Y. Youssef; External Collaboration; NA; NA; NA; Electrical and Computer Engineering; NA; Rabab Hamed M. Aly (IEEE, 2024-03-21)
    Cancer is distinguished by the presence of abnormal cellular proliferation and growth, both of which serve as signs and symptoms for this kind of illness. Computer vision, deep learning, and metaheuristics optimization techniques are increasingly important for solving complex medical Artificial Intelligence (AI) problems such as cancer detection. This paper introduces a new methodology for training the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) using the optimization algorithm known as Hunger Games search Optimization technique (HGO) and apply this method to classify the cervical cancer. The main goal of this method is to reduce the error and enhance the classification rate of cervical cancer. The outcomes show that the MLP with HGO algorithm performed better than other algorithms in terms of classification efficacy and accuracy rate. Simulation outcomes indicate that the proposed strategy performs better than previously published research in terms of effectiveness for the classification optimization methods.
  • A Survey on Energy Storage: Techniques and Challenges

    Krichen, Moez; Basheer, Yasir; Mian Qaisar, Saeed; Waqar, Asad; External Collaboration; Energy Lab; 0; 0; Electrical and Computer Engineering; 0; et al. (MDPI, 2023-02-27)
    Intermittent renewable energy is becoming increasingly popular, as storing stationary and mobile energy remains a critical focus of attention. Although electricity cannot be stored on any scale, it can be converted to other kinds of energies that can be stored and then reconverted to electricity on demand. Such energy storage systems can be based on batteries, supercapacitors, flywheels, thermal modules, compressed air, and hydro storage. This survey article explores several aspects of energy storage. First, we define the primary difficulties and goals associated with energy storage. Second, we discuss several strategies employed for energy storage and the criteria used to identify the most appropriate technology. In addition, we address the current issues and limitations of energy storage approaches. Third, we shed light on the battery technologies, which are most frequently used in a wide range of applications for energy storage. The usage and types of batteries are described alongside their market shares and social and environmental aspects. Moreover, the recent advances in battery state estimation and cell-balancing mechanisms are reviewed.
  • Deep Learning for Fault Detection of Digital VLSI Circuits

    Lamya Gaber; Hussein, Aziza; External Collaboration; NA; NA; NA; Electrical and Computer Engineering; NA; Lamya Gaber (IEEE, 2024-03-21)
    With the increasing complexity and scale of digital VLSI designs, ensuring reliability in IC design necessitates effective fault detection processes during the pre-silicon stage. Many fault detection algorithms lead to significant computational time due to the problem of search space explosion. To handle the ever-growing volume of data, deep learning algorithms, a subset of machine learning techniques, can be employed. In this paper, we propose two novel approaches for fault detection (FD) of digital VLSI circuits, specifically targeting stuck-at faults. The first proposed model is semi-supervised FD model that aims to mitigate the search space explosion issue by leveraging both unsupervised and supervised learning processes. The second presented model is based on an optimizer for finding the appropriate configurations for detecting stuck-at faults in digital circuits. The initial proposed model achieves maximum validation accuracy of approximately 98% applied to circuits from ISCAS’85. This model yields a higher accuracy compared to the second approach that achieves maximum accuracy of around 95% when applied to the same circuits from the ISCAS'85 benchmark.
  • Reconfigurable Multiband Matching Circuit Design for a Non-resonant Antenna in Wireless Point-of-Care Biosensors

    Ghadah S. Alyami; Sunday Ekpo; Hussein, Aziza; External Collaboration; NA; NA; NA; Electrical and Computer Engineering; NA; Ghadah S. Alyami (IEEE, 2024-03-21)
    Point-of-care (PoC) test is a portable test that allows patients and healthcare practitioners to perform ondemand real-time tests outside the laboratory and hospital environments. Its widespread adoption in healthcare systems enhanced the quality of care by reducing errors and providing rapid results which allow for faster treatment decisions. Adding wireless connectivity to PoC systems provides secure and instant wireless access to patients’ vital signs by healthcare professionals regardless of their location, as they can provide real-time remote monitoring, diagnostic and emergency services for patients. This paper presents a design of a reconfigurable impedance matching network (RIMN) for a non-resonant antenna chip to be implemented in wearable biosensors utilized in PoC tests. The purpose of the RIMN is to match the antenna chip’s impedance to the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) frequencies, viz: 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz. Return losses at below -10 dB with high bandwidths (of 200 MHz) and radiated power efficiencies (of over 95 %) have been achieved. The proposed mathematically modeled integrated hybrid wireless RFPerovskite energy harvester for multipurpose 5G/6G/Wi-Fi PoC biosensors promises superior performance metrics (including over 78% energy-harvesting efficiency) than the conventional approaches.
  • Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller with Neural Gas Network PID of Boost Converter

    Rabab Hamed M. Aly; Hussein, Aziza; External Collaboration; NA; NA; NA; Electrical and Computer Engineering; NA; Rabab Hamed M. Aly (IEEE, 2024-03-21)
    Each photovoltaic (PV) system demonstrates a specific point on the current-voltage (IV) curve characteristics where the power generated reaches its maximum value which is referred to as the maximum power point (MPP). The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system is designed to sample the output of solar cells and adjust the load in order to achieve maximum power output under various environmental conditions. In this paper, a design of a boost converter with MPPT based on a PID controller is proposed. The goal is to optimize the extraction of the highest attainable power from photovoltaic systems. The extracted power is subsequently directed to the load through a boost converter, which elevates the voltage to the necessary level. The PID controller is calibrated by Neural Gas Network (NGN) and utilized to achieve a consistent output voltage irrespective of fluctuations in the power source or the connected load. Moreover, an NGN technique is applied to generate the optimal PID parameters before using the PID. The comprehensive system design depicted has been simulated using MATLAB Simulink to verify the functionality of the system.
  • Artificial intelligence-based emotion recognition using ECG signals

    Tokmak, Fadime; Subasi, Abdulhamit; Mian Qaisar, Saeed; College collaboration; External Collaboration; Artificial Intelligence & Cyber Security Lab; 0; 0; Electrical and Computer Engineering; 0; et al. (Elsevier, 2024-03-29)
    Emotion recognition has the potential to significantly improve human–computer interaction and healthcare applications using biomedical signals. Understanding human behavior and mental health relies heavily on emotion recognition. This chapter gives a succinct description and implementation of artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms for emotion recognition using electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. ECG signals, which represent the electrical activity of the heart, have been investigated as a potential physiological biomarker of emotional states. AI techniques, such as machine learning and deep learning algorithms, have been used to analyze ECG data and properly classify emotions. These methods collect features from ECG signals and train models to recognize patterns associated with various emotional states. The use of AI for emotion recognition using ECG has yielded promising results in a variety of domains, including mental health evaluation, affective computing, and human–computer interaction. ECG signals and signal processing methods have been used to automate the detection and classification of emotions. The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate how to create an efficient Python ecosystem for real-time emotion recognition from ECG signals using PYTHON. The system's performance was assessed on a variety of individuals exposed to controlled emotional stimuli. The results confirmed the system's efficacy in accurately discriminating emotions, highlighting the promise of ECG-based emotion detection. This study advances emotion identification systems, opening the door to new applications in human–computer interaction, and mental health monitoring.

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